Rise of Civilizations Through the Years

  • 107

    Social Unrest in Rome (BC)

    After Gaius Marias was elected, social unrest began to reach a higher and more extreme level. This is significant because it led to the Social War and more conflicts later. (Political)
  • 221

    Chinese Develop More Jobs Under Huangdi (BC)

    Shi Huangdi's leadership led to the development of irrigation projects and more farm production. This is significant because these led to more jobs and farming, despite the original lack of farm land. (Economic)
  • 264

    The First Punic War Begins Between Rome and Carthage (BC)

    The Punic Wars began in 264 and went off and on until 146 when Rome defeated Carthage. This is significant because it was such a long war that ended in a lot of destruction, but gave much power to the Roman Empire. (Political)
  • 264

    Romans Adopt Many Greek Ideals (BC)

    During the Punic Wars, Greece became a Roman province and Rome adopted many Greek ideals, such as their gods. This is significant because Rome is given credit for some things that are really just a copu of the Greeks. (Culture)
  • 264

    Roman Religion (BC)

    The Romans adopted their religion based off of the Greeks'; they changed the names of the Greek gods to make them theirs. This is significant because most civilizations had their own religion, and if they had the same as another, the names of the gods/god was the same. (Culture)
  • Jan 1, 750

    Hammurabi's Code (BC)

    Hammurabi creates code of 282 laws for the Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. This is significant because the laws dealt with everything and everyone and it was one single code of laws. (Political)
  • Jan 1, 750

    Hammurabi's Code Treats Social Classes Differently (BC)

    Hammurabi created his code of laws, but they had different punishments for rich/poor and for men/women. This is significant because the laws were supposed to treat everyone equal, but there was still a difference between classes and genders. (Social)
  • Jan 1, 750

    The Benefits of the Sea Near Rome (BC)

    The sea surrounding Rome on three sides was another natural barrier that aided the growth of Rome. This is significant because the sea provided protection and a means of travel. (Interaction with environment)
  • Jan 1, 750

    Environment in Rome (BC)

    Rome had a mild climate and mostly fertile soil. This is significant because this made Rome able to support a large population. (Interaction with environment)
  • Jan 1, 750

    Agriculture in Rome (BC)

    Throughout the Roman Empire, agriculture remained the top occupation. This is significant because, like most civilizations, they depended on farming and agriculture. However, there were still diferences. (Economic)
  • Jan 1, 750

    Barriers in Rome (BC)

    The Alps mountain range were natural barriers in Rome. This is significant because this provided for protection, but not isolation. (Interaction with environment)
  • Jan 1, 753

    Romulus and Remus Founded Rome (BC)

    The Romans have a legend of how their city was formed that says it was founded by brothers Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf. This is significant because it is a major legend in the Roman Empire. (Culture)
  • Jan 1, 771

    Nomads Attack Zhou Dynasty (BC)

    Nomads from the north and west attacked the Zhou dynasty after it had been weakening. This is significant because it led to a time of chaos and destruction for the Chinese. (Political)
  • Jan 1, 1027

    Feudalism in China (BC)

    The Zhou dynasty developed the system of feudalism, which is when the king grants his land to nobles in exchange for loyalty, military service, and protection. This is significant because they were the first to use this system and it was an idea that spread to different civilizations. (Political)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Amorites invade Mesopotamia (BC)

    The Amorites overwhelmed the Sumerians and gained control; they established their capital at Babylon. This was the start of the Babylonian Empire. (Political)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Egyptians Defeat the Hyksos (BC)

    Egyptians defeat the Hyksos. This is significant because it led to the New Kingdom (1500-1070 BC), which was the height of Egyptian power. (Political)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Mycenaeans Take Over Greece (BC)

    Minoan's rule ended and was taken over by the Myceneaens, who are considered the first Greeks. This is significant because the Minoans were in power for about 2,000 years, and then were taken over by the Mycenaeans, who changed much of their kingdom. (Political)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Greeks change Minoan Language (BC)

    After taking over Greece, the Mycenaeans (or Greeks) changed the Minoan language to make it theirs. It has been changed again because modern Greek is very different from ancient Greek. It is significant because this is how the Greeks formed their language. (Culture)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Religion in Greece (BC)

    The Greeks believed in many gods. Their religion is significant because it was adopted and used by other civilizations, including Rome. (Culture)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Environment Might Have Caused Minoan Fall (BC)

    Most think that the enviroment caused the fall of the Minoan power. This is significant because they lasted about 2,000 years and change in the environment caused them to be taken over. (Interaction with environment)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Life in Sparta (BC)

    In Sparta, they had a military lifestyle. This is significant because there is a big difference in lifestyles between the city-states of Greece. (Social)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Women in Ancient Greece

    In Greece, women had to get married to an older man at 15, and then had to cook, clean, and care for children. This is significant because in the earlier civilizations, women had more rights and even though women could still own land in Greece, they had a more strict role in society. (Social)
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Separation of City-States in Greece (BC)

    In Ancient Greece, before the Persian Wars and again during the Peloponnesian Wars, city-states were classified separately instead of all being called Greeks. This is significant because in most civilizations, the different areas were still called the same name, but in Greece, they were classified by city-states. (Social)
  • Hyksos Defeat Egyptians (BC)

    The Hyksos attacked and defeated Egypt. This is significant because they gained control and ruled from 1630-1523 BC. (Political)
  • Decline of Indus Valley Civilization (BC)

    The Indus Valley civilization declined around this time, probably due to repeated flooding. This is significant because all of the ancient civilizations came to a decline, and the Indus Valley civilization is part of that pattern. (Political)
  • China Isolated by Barriers (BC)

    China was kind of isolated from other cviilizations due to natural barriers. This is significant because China was surrounded by different seas and an ocean, which made them isolated from other civilizations. (Interaction with environment)
  • Fertile Soil in China (BC)

    The Yellow River depsited yellow silt in China, which made it very fertile. This is significant because the river made China able to be farmed and created fertile soil when it floods. (Interaction with environment)
  • Natural Boundaries Doesn't Protect China (BC)

    The natural barriers in China didn't completely protect China from invasions, even though it isolated them a bit. This is significant because most civilizations have protection from outside invaders, but China didn't have much. (Interaction with environment)
  • Xia Dynasty in China (BC)

    Around the time of China's cities, the Xia dynasty rose to power. This is significant because these were the first dynasties. (Political)
  • Other Trades in China (BC)

    Since only a small portion of China was able to be farmed, they had to rely on other trades. This is significant because most other civilizations farmed for most of their jobs, but the Chinese didn't have much farming land. (Economic)
  • Advancements in China (BC)

    China had developments in many areas, including the use of chariots. This is signficant because it was very helpful in war and helped them a lot. (Culture)
  • Nobles in China (BC)

    The division between nobles and peasants was clear through the fact that nobles owned land, governed the villages, and took local control. This is significant because, like most civilizations, China had a great division in power between the high classes and the peasants. (Social)
  • Chinese Religion (BC)

    Family still had an impact on Chinese religion as well; they believed the spirits of their ancestors would bring them good fortune or disaster, but they didn't think these spirits were gods. They did worship many gods, but still had one main god. This is significant because a lot of other civilizations believed that the gods alone would bring either fortune or devastation, and that there wasn't really one main god. (Culture)
  • Writing in China (BC)

    The Chinese developed their own system of writing, which had characters that stood for syllables, but had no connection to their spoken language. This is significant because almost all the languages of the civilizations were very different from each other. Also, all the people of China could learn the same written language, even if they speak different languages. (Culture)
  • Family in China (BC)

    One of the top Chinese virtues was family, and even though they were treated differently and had different roles, men and women each had an important part and a certain amount of respect in the family. This is significant because since they virtued family so much, women had a part in it and were respected, but still had to respect the men more, even their own sons. (Social)
  • Where Different Classes Lived in China (BC)

    In China, the higher classes lived in houses in the city with clay and straw walls, whereas the peasants and craftspeople lived in huts outside the city. This is significant because, like most civilizations, the Chinese had a division between classes and they actually lived separately. (Social)
  • Crafts in China (BC)

    Since so little of the Chinese land was able to be farmed, they earned a living with craftmaking. This is significant because many of the other civilizations relied on farming and trade, but China only had the area around the river to farm and were isolated. (Economic)
  • Romans gain power over Etruscans (BC)

    The Romans threw out the last Etruscan king in 509 BC. This is significant because it began the Roman Empire that we know and allowed them to create a republic instead of being ruled by kings. (Political)
  • Patricians and Plebeians in Rome (BC)

    The power and rights of the Roman people were based on if they were plebeians, the common people, or patricians, the wealthy. This is significant because this decided whether you had rights or not, and later led to many conflicts. (Social)
  • Plebeians Gain More Power in Rome (BC)

    The plebeians challenged the patricians for more power, and they eventually got it. This is significant because there was a definite power struggle in Rome until the patricians finally granted the plebeians more rights. (Social)
  • Patricians Controlled Roman Society (BC)

    The patricians were head of all of the social aspects in Ancient Rome. This is significant because only the wealthy families had any kind of control in Ancient Rome. (Social)
  • Tennant Farmers in Rome (BC)

    During the Pax Romana, slaves on farms were being replaced with tennant farmers. This is significant because tennant farmers still got a form of pay, so slaves weren't used as much anymore. (Economic)
  • Wars in Greece (BC)

    Persian wars between Greek city-states and Persia led to Peloponnesian wars between Athens and Sparta. Athens was destroyed by Persian war, so spent money to make it better and Athens got jealous, causing the Peloponnesian wars (431-404 BC). This is significant because the Persian war allowed for the city-states to come together and call themselves Greeks instead of by city-state, but led to the Peloponnesian war, which allowed Greece to be taken over shortly after. (Political)
  • During the Age of Pericles and Golden Age of Athens (BC)

    Pericles wanted to beautify the city of Athens after it was destroyed during the Persian War. This is significant because many advances were made in literature, architecture, and arts. Also, this led to the Peloponnesian Wars. (Culture)
  • Manufacturing in Rome (BC)

    While farming was the main occupation, manufacturing increased during the Pax Romana. This is significant because Romans made cheap pottery and textiles in small shops, and things like fine glassware in Alexandria on top of farming.
  • Mountains in Greece (BC)

    High mountain ranges in Greece provide natural barriers. This is significant because mountains lead isolation and city-states. (Interaction with environment)
  • Water Makes Trade Easy in Greece (BC)

    Trade is made easy in Greece due to surrounding water. This is significant because Greeks needed trade due to lack of farming land. (Interaction with environment)
  • Greeks Rely on Trade (BC)

    Since the Greeks didn't have much land to farm, they had to get that from other civilizations through trade. This is significant because many other civilizations have trade, but most of them still farm for themselves. (Economic)
  • End of the Old Kingdom in Egypt (BC)

    The power of pharaohs declines in Egypt. This is significant because it led to the end of the Old Kingdom and, eventually, strong pharaohs gained control and the Middle Kingdom begins. (Political)
  • Sumerian Writing (BC)

    In around 2300, Sumerians developed cuneiform and wrote down one of the first known maps and some of the oldest records of scientific discovery. This is significant because they were the first to have a written language. (Culture)
  • Sargon Takes Control of Mesopotamia (BC)

    The conqueror Sargon defeated the city-states of Sumer and took over Mesopotamia. This is significant because it led to the first empire, the Akkadian Empire. (Political)
  • Language in Ancient Indus Valley (BC)

    The Indus Valley civilization had a language, but it can't be deciphered by historians. This is significant because since the language cannot be deciphered, not much is known about this civilization. (Culture)
  • Monsoons in the Indus Valley (BC)

    Monsoons swept through India and brought moisture in rain clouds. This is significant because the people depended on these for a relief from the dry heat. (Interaction with environment)
  • Wet and Dry Seasons in Indus Valley was Unpredictable (BC)

    The monsoon winds in India made wet and dry seasons unpredictable. This is significant because the people of India relied on these winds, but they never knew whether they would bring a wet season and good farming soil or a dry season and not so good farming land. (Interaction with environment)
  • Grid System/Architecture of Indus Valley (BC)

    They cities in the Indus Valley civilization had an impressive grid-like system. This is significant because their cities were organized with their streets in a grid pattern. (Culture)
  • Advancements in Bricks/Architecture (BC)

    The people of the Indus Valley civilization made advancements in city building and bricks, using oven-baked bricks rather than sun-dried mud bricks like the Mesopotamians. This is significant because these advancements led to better, more organized cities and were the stepping stones for the cities of India. (Culture)
  • Indus Valley Economy Based on Agriculture (BC)

    The main jobs in Ancient India was farming and agriculture. This is significant because, like most other civilizations, they thrived due to farming, but it was dependent on weather and climate, and many problems surfaced because of this. (Economic)
  • Indus Valley Specializing in Crafts (BC)

    While India was mainly focused on farming, they still made money off of crafts like pottery, metal work, and jewelry. This is significant because a lot of other civilizations were dependent on farming, but still used pottery to have specializations. (Economic)
  • Social Classes in Indus Valley (BC)

    Social division was probably not great in this civilization, as research of historians has shown. This is significant because unlike most of the other civilizations, especially the later ones, they didn't really have a great division in social status. (Social)
  • Limited Conflict in Indus Valley (BC)

    Research on these people have shown that there probably wasn't much conflict due to lack of weapons found as artifacts. This is significant because most civilizations had many conflicts with others, but not the people of the Indus Valley civilization. (Political)
  • Floods in the Indus Valley Civilization (BC)

    Nearby bodies of water brought yearly floods to India. This is significant because the people here relied on the floods for their crops, but changes could cause devastation, like other ciilizations including the Egyptians. (Interaction with environment)
  • Indus Valley People Had Strong Central Government (BC)

    The uniformity of their cities suggests that they had a strong central government. This is significant because they were very organized, focused, uniform, and centraled on government. (Political)
  • Indus Valley Dependent on Trade (BC)

    On top of farming and crafts, the people of the Indus Valley Civilization were dependent on trade. This is significant because almost all of the civilizations needed trade to survive, even the earliest ones. (Economic)
  • Social Classes in Egypt (BC)

    Social classes were formed in the Egyptian civilizations and went: kings and queens, landowners and government officials and priests, merchants and artisans, peasant farmers and laborers, and then later slaves. This is significant because social classes are about the same in most civilizations. Egyptians didn't have slaves at first either. Also, their classes weren't permanent... (Social)
  • Classes in Egypt Could be Changed (BC)

    Ancient Egyptians were not locked in social classes They could go up level through marriage or job success, This is significant because not many other civilizations could change social classes. (Social)
  • Egyptian Women's Rights (BC)

    In Egypt, women held same rights as men; wealthy women could own and trade property, women could propose or ask for divorce and, if divorced, she gets some land. This is significant because many of the civilizations that came later gave women very little rights. (Social)
  • Egypt by the Nile (BC)

    Egypt was located by the Nile River. This is significant because the river made the land fertile and provided yearly flooding. The Egyptians even considered it as like a god. (Interactions with environment)
  • Egypt's Natural Barriers (BC)

    The surrounding deserts around Egypt provided protection for the civilization, but also isolated them. This is significant because some civilizations didn't have much protection, but for the Egyptians, there were natural barriers to protect them. (Interactions with environment)
  • Farming in Egypt (BC)

    Such fertile soil from the Nile led to farming and agriculture in Egypt. This is significant because, like many other civilizations, farming was a big part of Egyptian life. The Nile could also destroy crops. (Economic)
  • The Nile's Negative Effects (BC)

    The Nile had negative aspects as well. Too much or too little flood caused great destruction for the Egyptians.. This is significant because the Egyptians were very dependent on the river, so if it acted differently, towns could be flooded or crops could be destroyed. (Interactions with environment)
  • Egyptian Writing (BC)

    Egyptians formed hieroglyphics, a form of writing using symbols and pictures that stood for an idea. They also invented papyrus reeds to write on instead of clay tablets and stone. This is significant because this was the second form of writing and part of being a civilization is a form of writing. (Culture)
  • Egyptian Science, Medicine, and Technology (BC)

    Practical needs led to Egyptian inventions. They developed a calendar, observed stars, and developed a system for numbers. They had many advances in medicine; doctors could check heart rate, could set broken bones in splints, had effective treatments for wounds and fevers, and used surgery for some conditions. This is significant because the Egyptians had some of the best advancements that we still use today. (Culture)
  • Egyptian Religion (BC)

    The Egyptians were polytheistic and they believed pharaohs were gods and that there is an afterlife (pyramids were built for kings and queens for afterlife journey, royal egyptians bodies mummified, book of the dead to guide soul to afterlife). This is significant because they had such different beliefs and had the advancements needed for these things, such as mummification. (Culture)
  • Trade in Egypt (BC)

    Since the Egyptians were so isolated by the deserts, trade was probably not as common here. However, I'm sure they still did trade when they could. This is significant because the deserts protected them, but they also isolated them and made trade more difficult for them. (Economic)
  • Minoans in Crete, Greece (BC)

    Minoans developed in Greece. This is significant because it was the start of civilization in Ancient Greece and also led to other inhabitants. (Political)
  • Sumerians in Mesopotamia (BC)

    Around 3300 BC, Summerians began to enter Mesopotamia. This is significant because it begins one of the first civilizations. (Interactions with environment)
  • Mesopotamia's Soil (BC)

    Mesopotamia had very fertile land. This is probably what attracted settlers to it. (Interactions with environment)
  • Disadvantages to Mesopotamia's Environment (BC)

    Mesopotamia's environment was prone to unpredictable flooding, had no barriers for protection, and had limited natural resources. The soil may have been fertile, but these disadvantages could lead to many conflicts. (Interaction with environment)
  • Sumerian Women and Rights (BC)

    Sumerian women could work as merchants, farmers, or artisans and could hold property in their name. However, social classes allowed for some differences between women of different statuses. This is significant because compared to other civilizations women had a lot of rights, but there were still differences due to classes. (Social)
  • Sumerian Math, Science, and Architecture (BC)

    Sumerians used arithematic and geometry, along with architectual advancements, to meet their needs. This is significant because many of the units and measurements we use today comes from this. (Culture)
  • Sumerian Religion (BC)

    Sumerians believed in many gods and that these gods sent them blessings for their food and other fortunes. Priests also led the city and acted as go- betweens for the gods.This is significant because many of the later civilizations were polytheistic as well, and they all put much importance on the gods throughout their lives. (Culture)
  • Farming in Mesopotamia (BC)

    Mesopotamia had some of the best soil for farming, which became the main job for Sumerians. This is significant because the harvests allowed the civilization to grow there. (Economic)
  • Sumerian Irrigation (BC)

    To deal with their problems concerning water (flood, drought), Sumerians built irrigation ditches. This is significant because it solved their problems about water, carried it to the crops, and irrigation is used by many other civilizations. (Economic)
  • Sumerian Trade (BC)

    Sumerians traded goods such as grain, cloth, and crafted tools with surrounding people from the mountains and desert. This is significant because they used trade to get rid of what they had plenty of in exchange for the raw materials that they needed. Trade is an important part for the survival of most civilizations. (Economic)
  • Sumerians Discover Social Classes (BC)

    Their social structure went: kings/landholders/some priests, then wealthy merchants, then ordinary Summerians, and lastly slaves. This is significant because, being of the first civilizations, the Sumerians were of the firsts to set up social classes. (Social)