The French secretly sent weapons to the Patriots due to their anger towards the British.
On March of 1776, Boston had no choice but to retreat in which they moved the war to the Middle states.
General William Howe and Admiral Richard Howe
Brothers William and Richard Howe joined forces on Staten Island and sailed to New York City in the summer of 1776 with 32,000 soldiers including thousands of German mercenaries.
A continental army volunteer, Michael Graham, described the radical withdrawal. "It is impossible for me to describe the confusion and horror of the scene that ensued: the artillery flying..."
The British pushed Washington and his army across the Delaware River in Pennsylvania.
On Christmas night, Washington decided to take a risk for a victory. He led 2,400 men in small rowboats across the ice-choked Delaware River.
By 8 o'clock, the men marched 9 miles through sleet and snow to their main goal --- Trenton, New Jersey, held by a garrison of Hessians.
Due to heavy losses, Washington's enlistment ended.
Winter of 1777-1778
Albigense Waldo served as a surgeon at Valley Forge, outside of Philadelphia which was the site of the Continental Army's camp.
The Americans had gained another victrory against 1,200 British staioned at Princeton
General Howe's plan
In the Spring of 1777, General Howe created a plan to seize the American capital at Philadelphia.
"Gentleman Johnny" surrendered
A mass of Ameican troops surrounded General John Burgoyne at Saratoga, where he was forced to surrender his battered army to General Gates.
The French signed an alliance
The French realized the American independence and signed an alliance, or so called treaty of cooperation, with the Americans.
Friedrich von Steuben
The American troops began a terrific transformation. Friedrich von Steuben, a Prussian captain, volunteered to help out thhe American soldiers to raise their fighitng techniques.
The British began to shift their operations to the South due to their devastating defeat at Saratoga. They hope to train their military in order to prepare them for the war and figh their way back north.
A British expedtion easily took Savannah, Georgia.
Spring of 1779
Once the British took over Georgia, a royla governor came in and governed the area, ever since the British expedition at the end of 1778.
France in 1779
Marquis de Lafayette joined Washington's staff, lobbied for French reinforcements in France, and led a command in Virginia in the last years of the war.
General Henry Clinton and General Charles Cornwallis
General Clinton and Cornwallis sailed South with 8,500 men. The British captured Charles Town, South Carolina which was their greatest victory. Later on, Cornwallis would become a great leader and would succeed plenty.
The French Army
In 1780, a French army of 6,000 troops landed in Newport, Rhode Island, after the British fled the city to focus on the South.
Clinton + Cornwallis = teamwork _
Clinton and Cornwallis then marched 5.500 Americna soldiers off as prisoners of war. Afterwards, Clinton left to New York in which then Cornwallis was to lead the army to capture North Carolina.
Cornwallis and his army smashed American forces at Camden, South Carolina and within three months, The British established forts across the state.
Robert Morris as suprintendent of finance
Congress assigned a rich Philadelphia merchant named Robert Morris as superintendent of finance. He worked with his associate Haym Salomon, a jewish political refugee from Poland, to raise many funds.
British forced to surrender
Both Americans and the redcoats met in Cowpens, South Carolina. Unexpected, the redcoats thought they had another victory but the Contintental Army fought back and forced the British to surrender.
Cornwallis attacks Nathanael Greene
Due to his anger of his defeat at Cowpens, Cornwallis attacked Greene two months later after the war in Cowpens. Although Cornwallis won, he suffered a large cost of a fourth of his troops -- 93 killed, over 400 wounded, and 26 missing.
Greene writes to Lafayette
Although, Nathanael weakened the British he was worried about the fight for the South. He wrote a letter to Lafayette asking for help. "I wish you to march your force Southward by Alexandria & Fredricksburg to Richmond..."
The efforts of Haym and Robert
Morris and Salomon gave all of their effort to give the trroops what they deserved. On September 8 of 1781, the troops were paid in specie, or gold coin.
After exhaustion and being outnumbered two to one, Cornwallis finally raised the white flag of surrender.
Colonel William Fortaine joined the Americans and French
On the afternoon of October 19, 1781, Colonel William Fortaine stood by the Americans and the French, near Yorktown, Virginia, to witness the British surreneder.
Ammusement of the British surrendering
An ecstatic Washington, the French generals, and their troops assembled to accept the British surrender. After General Charles O'Hora handed over his sword, the British laid down their arms.
Treaty Of Paris
In September of 1763, delegates signed the Treaty Of Paris which confirmed U.S. Independence and set the boundaries of the new nation.