Race Relations

  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    Ended the French and Indian War, and designated the Native Americans with their own territory.
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    U.S. Independence

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    Indian Trade and Intercourse Act

    Meant to regulate the interaction between Indians and non-Indians. Renewed 1834 to create the Indian Territory in Oklahoma.
  • Johnson v. McIntosh

    Stripped Native tribes of sovereignty and the right to trade their lands.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Bill passed by President Andrew Johnson to remove the natives east of the Mississippi to the West.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Geogia

    Cherokee attempts to resist their removal from Georgia fail.
  • Worchester v. Georgia

    Courts found that the federal government had no right to forcibly remove the Cherokee from their lands in Georgia.
  • Indian Intercourse Act

    Created the Indian Territory in Oklahoma.
  • Treaty of New Echota

    Cherokee tribes sign away their ancestral lands for those in Oklahoma.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    President Jackson sends 7,000 troops to Georgia to remove the Native tribes west to Oklahoma.
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    Controversy over the Black Hills in South Dakota

    The long struggle over the sacred Sioux hunting grounds ends with the Mannypenny Agreement. This ended Sioux rights to leave the reservations to hunt and took the Black Hills from them.
  • Indian Appropriations Act

    Meant that no new tribe thereafter would be recognized by the federal government.
  • Custer announces the discovery gold in the Black Hills

    This creates a gold rush onto the Reservation and a struggle over the rights of the land.
  • Battle of the Little Bighorn

    Battle of the Little Bighorn
    Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer, the great 'Indian Fighter', and his 7th Calvary are defeated by Sioux and Cheyenne forces in Montana.
  • Sitting Bull Surrenders

    Sitting Bull Surrenders
    A Medicine Man, and Chief, led Sioux forces against Lt. Col. Custer at the Little Bighorn. Fled to Canada with 500 folowers, but returned in 1881, with his people starving and ill. He surrendered to the U.S. government and was considered to be the last free Sioux tribe.
  • Trail of Broken Treaties

    Trail of Broken Treaties
    This was a cross-country protest starting on the West coast and stretching to Washington, D.C. Eight Native American organizations including the American Indian Movement, the National Indian Brotherhood (a Canadian organization), the Native American Rights Fund, the National Indian Youth Council, among others drove as a caravan to the capital to confront issues about land and land rights.
  • Joint Tribal Council of the Passamaquoddy Tribe v. Morton

    Courts find that the lands were indeed obtained illegally. Federal goverment is decided to pay $81.5 million.
  • Class action lawsuit with the federal government ends after 13 years

    Class action lawsuit with the federal government ends after 13 years
    Federal government decides to settle out of court for $3.4 billion. Involving hundreds of thousands of land and trust claims, stating the federal government mismanaged money with the American Indian Trusts and lands.