Public Administration- MPA 699A

By marple
  • Declaration of Independence

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    First Wave of Industrial Revolution begin ca. late 1700s

    Industrialization first in Great Britain spreads to North America
    Textiles, rail roads, canals lead to urbanization and growth of related problems.
  • U.S. Constitution adopted

    Replaces a weak Articles of Confederation
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    G. Washington

  • Bill of Rights is ratified.

    First ten amendments to the Constitution
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    J. Adams

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    T. Jefferson

  • Marbury v. Madison

    Asserts judicial review
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    J. Madison

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    J. Monroe

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    John Q. Adams

  • Jacksonian justifies spoils system

    Supporters of the spoils system argued that it placed accountability for administration more closely with the population who could vote out the patrons who administered an ineffective system.
    Opponents argued that it politicized administration making it less efficient.
    Ended with the Pendleton Act in 1883.
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    A. Jackson

  • Alexis de Tocqueville publishes Democracy in America

    Democracy in America observes political institutions, political culture including voluntary associations in America. Tocqueville is intent on seeing the workings of democracy in America in hopes that it might be of assistance to his native France.
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    M. Van Buren

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    Wm. H. Harrison

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    J. Tyler

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    J. Polk

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    Z. Taylor

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    M. Fillmore

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    Second wave of Industrialization

    2nd wave includes communication (telegraph and telephone), expansion of railroads, factory developments fueled by internal combustion machinery and electrical power. Urbanization and immigration patterns change America from a primarily agrarian society to an urbanized society.
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    F. Pierce

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    J. Buchanan

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    A Lincoln

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    Civil War

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    A. Johnson

  • Dillon's Rule

    Judge Dillon rules that local governments may exercise only those powers granted explicitly by their states.
  • 14th Amendment ratified

    Provides that no state shall deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
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    U.S. Grant

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    R. Hayes

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    J. Garfield

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    C. Arthur

  • Pendleton Act enacted creating the U. S. Civil Service Commission

    Precipiated by the assasination of Pres. Garfield by a deranged spurned office seeker. Creates beginnings of merit system.
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    G. Cleveland

  • Wilson's "The Study of Administration" is published.

    Compares political administration in the U. S. to England, Germany and France. Introduces the political/administration dichotomy. Argues for a well-trained professional administrator.
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    Classical Organizational Theory period

    focus on top level management
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    B. Harrison

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    G. Cleveland

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    Wm. McKinley

  • Goodnow publishes "Politics and Administration" defining the politics-administration dichotomy.

    One of the first works specifically defining the politics-administration dichotomy. Advocates for the "Executive Administrative School", sees public administration as opportunity for executive action by the President.
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    Introduction of "scientific management" and growth of bureaucratic form of organizations

    Scientific management is introduced by F.W. Taylor first in the private sector (factories) and then into the public sector (executive branch agencies.)
    Called by Kettl the golden age of public administration
    Theorists incl Wilson, Goodnow, Gulick, Frederickson,Taylor, Fayol, Willoughby.

    This form is relevant for a significant period of the 20th century. The end of WWII marks the beginning of the end it will still be in place long into the networked governance acendant in the 1980s.
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    T. Roosevelt

  • Frederick Taylor publishes Shop Management

    ideas become known as Taylorism; ideas transfer from factories to public agencies ; "one-best way"
    time and motion studies can determine the best way to do any task or series of tasks increasing productivity; employees are seen as similar to replacable parts of a machine
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    Wm. H. Taft

  • L. Brandeis introduces term "scientific management"

    In the context of a ICC hearing, Brandeis argues that railroads could be more efficient by applying scientific management methods increasing efficiency therefore making their proposed rate increase unnecessary.
  • F. W. Taylor publishes Principles of Scientific Management

  • Taft Commission

    Presidential Commission calls for a national executive budget.
  • Mustenberg publishes Psychology and Industrial Efficiency

    encourages application of psychology to industry (the for-profit sector.)
  • 16th Amendment creates the first permanent federal income tax

  • Federal Reserve Act

    Creates a central bank responsible for monetary policy
    Considered the apex of the Hamiltonian tradition.
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    W. Wilson

  • Fayol publishes General and Industrial Management in France

    1st complete theory of management
  • 18th Amendment ratified (Prohibition)

  • Retirement Act creates first federal service pension system

  • 19th Amendment ratified (Women's right to vote)

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    W. Harding

  • Max Weber's definition of bureaucracy is published (posthumously)

    They refer to (1) the division of labour in the organization, (2) its authority structure, (3) the position and role of the individual member, and (4) the type of rules that regulate the relations between organizational members.
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    C. Coolidge

  • Hawthorne studies in Chicago

    Lead to new understanding of work environment and productivity
  • MP Follett argues for power with vs. power over

    introduces participatory management;another hint of future Human Resources school; emphasis on groups rather than top level management as had been the focus of classical organizational theory.
    Follett may be one of the earliest to focus attention but this school continues in shadow of classical org theory until the 1950s-60s. See Mayo (Hawthorne), McGregor, Hertzberg, et al.
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    H. Hoover

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    Collapse of Stock Market (Black Friday) marks the beginning of the Great Depression.

    Many scholars argue that the economic downturn lasted until the expansion of WWII.
    FDR's New Deal marks a move toward greater federal government involvement in private sector.
    Keynesian economic ascendant.
    Federal government authorizes direct payments to individuals for first time.
  • 18th Amendment (Prohibition) repealed

  • Mayo publishes report on Hawthorne studies

    Early Human Resources school (Human relations movement);
    decades long study at Western Electric Company factory showed some surprising results: work places are first a social situation. Workers are more influenced by peers than management.
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    FDR's New Deal era

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    F. D Roosevelt (FDR)

  • Social Security program created

  • Keynes publishes theory on fiscal and monetary policies

    Keynsian economics: government can influence economy through spending and fiscal deficits
  • Brownlow Comittee (1936-1937)

    Appointed by FDR; Members (Brownlow, Merriam and Gulick;
    Purpose: examine Executive Branch;Expected to address inefficiencies due to rapid growth of New Deal programs.Report: President needs help, reorg the Exec Branch.
  • E.R. Herring asserts that bureacrats are often arbiters of the public interest

  • Gulick and Urwick apex of orthodoxy period in public administration

    Theory of Organization: functional elements
    introduces POSDCoRB
  • C. Barnard's article on the function of the executive

    foreshadows study of organizational behavior
  • Reorganization Act

    Creates Executive Office of the President;Transfers budget from Treasury to White House.
  • Merton criticizes Weber's ideal type of bureaucracy

    leads to inefficiency or worse
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  • Maslow publishes hierarchy of needs

    A contribution from the psychological field. The needs fall broadly into the areas of:
  • Appelby criticizes politics-administration dichotomy

    Administration is inherently political
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    Neoclassical organization theory period

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    Org Theory moves from classical and neoclassical models to systems theory and then onto Cybernetics and Complex Adaptive Systems theory

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    Cold War

    Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries seen as the enemy
    military complex buildup foreseen by Eisenhower
    skirmishes on perimieter (Africa, SE Asia, Korea)
    ends as Soviet system fails
    dismantling of Berlin Wall
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    H. Truman

  • Administrative Procedures Act

    standardizes administrative practices across agencies
  • 1st Hoover Commission (1947-1949)

    Presidential commission appointed by Truman; Expected to address the reduction in size of government following the end of WWII. Report addresses managerial capacity. Considered effective. Results in several reforms implemented by Congress and President.
  • Dahl argues that public admin must address normative aspects

    as a study, PA has become too narrow; workers can't be viewed as in the scientific management tradition as replacable machine parts in a bureaucratic machine.
  • Simon decision making is heart of PA

    Simon, one of the neoclassical theorists
    expanded the conversation on decision making
    bounded rationality
  • Waldo criticizes focus on efficiency that dominated PA prior to WWII

  • 2nd Hoover Commission (1953-1955)

    Presidential commission appointed by Eisenhower; not very productive; recommends reduction in federal government activities which can be provided by the private sector.
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    D. Eisenhower

  • Drucker publishes Practice of Management

    popularizes management by objectives
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Topeka, Kansas
    racially seperate educational facilities violates equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment
  • Argyris publishes Personality and Organization

    argues that there is inherent conflict between personality of an adult and the needs of a modern organization
  • McGregor publishes Human Side of Enterprise

    Furthers conversation about motivation in workplace.
    The traditional attititudes about motivation are characterized as Theory X: workers are lazy and need to be supervised closely. Theory Y (McGregors' contribution to the vocabulary) says that work is as natural as play, workers will exercise self-direction and self-control, avoidance of responsiblity is learned from experience -not natural and imagination and ingenuity is wide spread in population.
  • Simon and March publish Organizations

    addresses behavioral revolution in organizations
  • Lindblom publishes "Science of Muddling Through"

    Re: decision making model;rejects rationality and bounded rationality models; favors small changes; organizations benefit from being able to learn from other previous changes
  • Hertzberg et al publish work on motivation: "Motivation to Work:

    Motivation-Hygiene theory
    Hygiene factors- 5 items associated with job dissatisfaction:
    company policy and admin, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions.
    Motivator factors- 5 items determiners of job satisfaction: achievement, recognition,work itself, resposibility and advancement.
  • Neustadt asserts presidential power (or executive's power) is power of persuasion

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    Human Resource School

  • Kennedy authorizes executive order implementing "affirmative action" policy for federal workforce (employees and contractors)

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    J. Kennedy (JFK)

    introduces New Frontier initiatives
    Peace Corp and Space Race (vs. Soviet Union)
  • Kennedy authorizes unionization of federal workers

  • Civil Rights takes center stage with March on Washington (King: "I have a dream" speech)

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    L. B. Johnson (LBJ)

  • Civil Rights Act passes as part of LBJ's Great Society

    prohibits discrimination in private sector employment and public housing
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    LBJ's Great Society

    War on Poverty domestic programs
  • Bennis publishes Changing Organizations

    Profound rejection of bureacratic institutions-
    Bureaucracies will not be adequate for future that will demand rapid org change, participatory management and growth of professionalized work force
  • Grodzins asserts that American federalism is a marble not a layer cake

  • J. D. Thompson addresses open and closed systems theory in Organizations in Action

    Organizations deal with uncertainty by
    1.) creating elements to cope with outside world
    2.) creating elements to focus on rational nature of techical operations.
  • Minnowbrook conference "New Public Administration"

    Public administrator theorists call for "New Public Administration" emphasizing social equity concerns, relevance, value transparency.
    Response to the social upheavals of the 1960s.
    Theorists in the school include Dwight Waldo, H.G. Frederickson.
    Never developed into a fully articulated theory.
  • Theodore Lowi, End of Liberalism, argues that interest group pluralism paralyzes policy-making process.

  • Ash Committee

    Presidential commission appointed by Nixon (and retained by Ford.)
    Led by Litton executive
    Recommended creation of EPA
    Recommendations waylaid by Watergate
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    R. Nixon

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Act amended to include prohibitions on discrimination by public sector employees.

  • Charles Perrow's Complex Organizations is a defense to bureacracies.

    Argues that though imperfect, they can not be easily, inexpensivley replaced.
  • Wildavsky and Pressman publish Implementation creating new subfield

  • Watergate focuses attention on governmental ethics

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    G. Ford

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    J. Carter

  • Civil Service Reform Act abolishes Civil Service Commission

    replaces commision with: Office of Personnel Mgmt, Merit Systems Protection Board,Federal Labor Relations Authority.
  • Prop 13 initiative passes in California

    Limits increases in property taxes; Dramatically changes the ways the government funding is shared by state and local government impacting education severely. Tax Revolt spreads to other states
  • Reagan Revolution

    Reagan rides the Tax Revolt (e.g., California's Prop. 13) to White House. Marks huge shift in role of federal government.
    New New Federalism (compared to New Federalism of Nixon era). Block grants to state and local governments used to implement programs. Managerialism/entrepeneurialism emerges (an ideology shared by Thatcher in Great Britain.)
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    R. Reagan

  • Grace Commission

    Presidential commission appointed by Reagan; aka President's Private Sector Survey on Cost Control. Reflected ideological view that private sector is more efficient. Chaired by a private sector CEO. Failed to encourage/collect employee participation. Not considered very effective.
  • National debt exceeds $2 trillion for the first time

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    G.H.W. Bush

  • National debt exceeds $3 trillion

  • Osborne and Gaebler publish Reinventing Government

    uses private sector ideals such as customer satisfaction hoping asserting that these would improve public sector efficiency
    came to be known as New Public Administration (NPM)
    Clinton appoints VP Gore to lead Natl Performance Review (NPR)
  • National debt exceeds $4 trillion

  • NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agmt) is approved

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    W. Clinton

  • NPR (National Performance Review)

    VP Gore leads review. Aka National Partnership for Reinventing Government. Considered more extensive than a reform; reinvention called for a complete paradigm switch Government should steer rather than row, focus on outcomes (desired results) and needs of customers (service recipients), rather than inputs (dollars and jobs) and needs of bureaucracies (rules),decentralize: address problems from the lowest level of government Public ag. should compete with private sector.
  • Welfare Reform Act passes

    Decreases disbursements to recipients; Increases role of state and local governments and dependence on nonprofit sector.
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    G. W. Bush

  • 9/11/2011

    Marks "War on Terror"
    Dramatic increase in defense spending as US conducts war in Afghanistan and in 2003 in Iraq.
  • National debt exceeds $8 trillion

  • Triggered by bank failures and slumping economy Congress passes and Bush signs TARP

    Troubled Asset Recovery Act; triggered by sub-prime lending in real estate sector; massive bailout of private sector (including GM)
  • ARRA passes Congress and is signed by Obama

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; marked a swing back toward Keynsian economics. Represents a view that government's role is to address society's problems that are not addressed by free market capitalistic form of economy.
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    B. Obama

  • National debt exceeds $12 trillion

  • Denhardts (and others: Kettl) argue for a new period in public administration

    Kettl argues for new terminology that reflects the network governance which describes the dependence on all 3 levels of government plus the increased role of the non profit sector. The Next Government of the United States.
    The Denhardts argue that the characteristics of the public sector are not the same as the private sector. They argue that a more appropriate name would be "New Public Service".
  • Bibliography

    Shafritz, Jay M., and Albert C. Hyde. Eds. Classics of Public Administration. 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Pub, 2011. 3-13, 67-80, 171-185, 371-394, 563-568. Print. Shafritz, Jay, E.W. Russell, and Christopher Borick. Eds. Introduction to Public Administration. 7th ed. Boston, MA: Longman, 2011. Print.