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  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    History of the Oratoria post-1500

  • Giacomo Carissimi

    Giacomo Carissimi
    Giacomo Carissimi born
    Death: January 12, 1674 Important person: Composer of oratorios in Italy during the 17th century. Contributed to the Latin oratorio (oratorio latino)
    Teacher of both Alessandro Scarlatti and Marc-Antoine Charpentier
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier

    Marc-Antoine Charpentier
    Marc-Antoine Charpentier born
    Death: 1704
    Important person: composer of oratorio. As a student of Carissimi, he used the Italian practices towards composition and music although he resided in France. He is credited with establishing the oratorio in France
  • Antonio Draghi

    Antonio Draghi
    Death: 1700 Baroque composer of oratorios in Vienna. Considered to be most prolific of his time and area.
  • The musical term oratorio

    The first documented use of the word oratorio to describe a musical form.
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    Oratorio sections

    Oratorias were primarily organized in a single section
  • Passio secundum Joannem cum intermediis

    Composed by Thomas Selle Earliest known Oratorio Passion
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier

    Marc-Antoine Charpentier
    Tunc respexit Jesus Petrum Marc-Anoine Charpentier Born
    Death: February 24, 1704 Influential Person: active in France
    Composer of oratorios - one of the only French composers to write oratorios. Mostly he wrote Latin oratorios. His oratories featured a heavier reliance on choruses than Carissimi's and other composers of the time.
  • Antonio Teodoro Ortells

    Death: 1706 Began a tradition of Spanish oratorio composition. Text in Spanish Compositions include: El hombre moribondo, El juicio particular and Oratorio sacro a la passión de Cristo señor nuestro
  • Actus musicus de Divite et Lazaro, das ist Musicalische Abbildung der Parabel vom Reichen Manne und Lazaro

    By Andreas Fromm. Often called the first German oratorio
  • Sepolcro

    Genre that developed in Viennese court. Closely related to the oratorio.
    Differences: in one part, the text restricted itself to the Passion, it was only performed on certain days, and it used staging, costumes, and scenery
  • Oratorio Passion

    Beginning mid-17th century - oratorio passions began appearing Combined narrative, dramatic, and contemplative elements in the text. Used interpolations of text not from the Gospel or chorales, modern recitative and concerto styles Italian influences: interpolations of freely composed spiritual poetry. Italianate arias Composers: Selle, Johann Sebastiani, Johann Theile, Kühnhausen, Meder, and J.S. Bach
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    Italy: Social function of the oratorio

    During this time, the oratorio ventured outside the church for performance, appearing at noble's palaces too.

    Oratorios were frequently used as a substitute for opera during Lent
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    Oratorio: locations

    Locations expanded from simply Rome, Italy to include cities such as Bologna, Modena, Florence and Venice
    Modena: Greatest time of oratorio activity 1677-1702
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    Italian Oratorio in Vienna, Austria

    Time when the Italian oratorio flourished in the Viennese court due to patronage. Composers: Fux, Caldara, Draghi, Bertali, Cesti, Pederzuoli, Sances, Ziani, Badia, Richter, Tosi, Bononcini, Conti, Pallota, Porsile, Predieri, and Reutter
  • Italian Oratorio in Halsburg

    Halsburg court in Vienna adopted use of the Italian oratorio.
  • Oratorio erotico

    The development of the oratorio erotico is characterized by an emphasis on the sensuality of female characters
  • Johann Joseph Fux

    Johann Joseph Fux
    Death: 1741 Active in Vienna, Austria. Contemporary of Caldara
    Played an imporant role in shaping the style of 18th century oratorios in Vienna. Composer of oratorios
  • Alessandro Scarlatti

    Alessandro Scarlatti
    Death: 1725 Important to the new Italian 18th century style of oratorio
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    Oratorio: Important characteristics

    Small number of instruments. Heavy focus on basso continuo. Lose intermingling of recitative, aria, and arioso styles. Arias tended to be in strophic, modified strophic, binary, or ternary forms (ABB1 most common). They were typically accompanied by basso continuo
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    Oratorio Changes

    Subject Matter:The source for librettos consisted of the Bible, moral allegory, and hagiography. The rise of hagiography is attributed to the Counter-Reformation Text: Beginning in 1660 the libretto for oratorios was extended to 250-350 lines of text. These continued to typically be divided into two parts. The increased amount of text led to performance time being 1.5-2 hours Organization: Decrease in the use of chorus. Elimination of testo. Increased focus on soloists
  • Antonio Caldara

    Death: 1763 Influential composer of 18th century oratorios in Vienna, Austria
    Played an important role in changing the style of oratorios
    Contemporary of Fux
  • Sacra melodia di oratorii musicali

    Publication of ten of Lazarini's oratorio librettos
  • Spanish oratorios

    Beginning of composition of Spanish oratorios Composers: Ortells
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    Oratorio: New characteristics

    Concerto grosso instrumentation used for larger instrumental ensembles Arias: pattern of recitative and aria established, orchestrally accompanied 'da capo' form arias, clearer expression of emotions, Classical stylistic impact
  • Actus musicus de Divite et Lazaro, das ist Musicalische Abbildung der Parabel vom Reichen Manne und Lazaro

    Work by Andreas Fromm. Referred to as the first German oratorio by some.
  • George Frederic Handel

    George Frederic Handel
    Nightingale Chorus George Fideric Handel born
    Death: April 14, 1759
    Influential person: prolofic composer of oratorios. Created the English Oratorio
    His oratorios frequently featured a French overture
    Composed in English and German
    Best-known oratorio: The Messiah
  • German: Oratorium

    Beginning of the German oratorio. Used German text. Creation influenced by Italian oratorio Rooted in Lutheran "historia" Early composers: Schütz, Fromm, Schelle, Erlebach, Petzold, and Zachow
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    Oratorio in Germany

    Oratorios were rejected due to their lack of biblical quotations
  • Oratorii overo melodrammi sacri

    Publication of Spagna's oratorios Included "Discorso intorno a gl'oratori" - Spagna's treatise about the improvement of the oratorio librettos
  • Handel arrived in London, England

    Handel arrived in London, England
    Handel's arrival in England heralded the coming of oratorios to England.
  • Oratorio Sections

    Common practice changed to dividing oratorios into two sections
  • Oratorios in Hamburg Cathedral

    Oratorios are officially considered to be acceptable in Hamburg, Germany. After this time, the popularity of oratorios would spread oustide Hamburg too. Composer who established oratorio at Hamburg Cathedral: Mattheson
  • Johann Heinrich Rolle

    Johann Heinrich Rolle
    Death: 1785 Influential person: prolific composer of German oratorios. Operated in Magdeburg, Germany.
  • Early German Oratorios

    Composers: Mattheson, Telemann, Handel, Keiser Subject matter: biblical, high use of chorales Differences from Italian oratorios: greater variety and contrast, more use of choruses, inclusion of chorales, and use of biblical text
  • I fasti sacri

    Second publication of Spagna's oratorio librettos
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    Classical German Oratorios

    Composers: Telemann, C.P.E. Bach, Rolle, Kunzen, and Königslöw Oratorios were used in both sacred and secular settings Dramatic librettos were favored over contemplative librettos
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    Italian Oratorio - Development of the Classical Style

    Composition of oratorios in the developing classial style. This style was characterized by homophonic textures and symmetrical phrases.
    "Neopolitan school"
    Oratorio volgare dominated. The staged oratorio appeared Composers include: Porpora, Jommelli, Piccinni, G.F. Majo, Antonio Sacchini, Cimarosa, P.A. Guglielmi, Paisiello and Zingarelli
  • English Oratorio

    The English oratorion features a combination of elements found in the English masque and anthem, the French classical drama, the Italian opera seria and oratorio volgare, and the German Protestant oratorio. Typically done in three Acts using a dramatic text based on a sacred subject.
  • Esther by Handel

    Handel's oratorio "Esther" became the first oratorio to be performed in England
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    Oratorio in England - 18th Century

    The English oratorio consisted of melding musical elements from Italy, Germany, France, and England into a new form of oratorio. The most prominant composer was George Frederic Handel.
    Other composers include Maurice Greene, Willem De Fesch, Arne and Stanley
  • Joseph Haydn

    Joseph Haydn
    Joseph Haydn born
    Death: May 31, 1809 Prolific composer of late Classical German oratorios Operated in Germany, Vienna, and England
  • Charles VI Death

    King Charles VI of Vienna, Austria died. Result: decrease in number of oratorios commissioned and created
  • The Messiah

    Completion of Handel's best known work - The Messiah The Messiah, unlike most English oratorios, did not have a dramatic text Performance practice: unstaged, three parts, heavy use of chorus
  • North America: Oratorio

    The oratorio in North America did not consist of newly composed works. Insetad, the focus was on the performance of the works of composers such as Handel in both sacred and secular context.
  • Staged Oratorio - Italy

    The staged oratorio appeared. This resulted in the primary differences between opera and oratorio being the number of parts and the sacred or secular subject matter. Staged oratorios were most frequently seen in Naples, Italy
  • English Oratorio culture after Handel

    The oratorio culture in England after Handel's death focused on the Three Choirs Festival which favored the works of Handel, particularly his Messiah. Handel did not develop an oratorio school during his time in England so English oratorios were not written in large numbers. This is not to say they weren't written. Some composers include: J.C. Smith, John Stanley, Arne, John Worgan, Charles Avison, Samuel Arnold and Luffman Atterbury.
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    French Ortaorio

    The French Oratorio typically used sacred texts in French. The works were seldom called oratorios and were similar to the works of Carissimi due to their short length. Notable Composers: Méreaux, Cambini, Rigel, Gossec
    Philidor, Sacchini, and Salieri
  • Tonkünstler-Societät founded

    Tonkünstler-Societät - society in Vienna, Austria.
    Result: oratorios increasingly became a part of public concert life
  • Il ritorno di Tobia

    Haydn's only Italian oratorio. First performed at a concert for the Tonkünstler-Societät
  • Le Sueur's four ‘mass-oratorios’

    French oratorios Original and innovative extensions of the Mass
  • The Creation (Die Schöpfung)

    Haydn's famous oratorio "The Creation" was completed
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    19th Century Oratorios: France

    France: continued use of French text and increased performance in concert halls (secular context). Important composers: Le Sueur, David, Elwart, Berlioz, Franck, Saint-Saëns, Gounod, Massenet, and Dubois.
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    European Oratorio

    Beginning of composition of oratorios in Belgium and Holland
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    Italy and Spain Oratorio - 19th century

    Italy and Spain experienced a rise in the popularlity of sacred operas which resulted in a decrease in popularity of the unstaged oratorios. Italian composers of oratorio: Simon, Bonfichi, Mercadante, Teodulo, Mabellini, Pietro Raimondi, Pacini, Serrao, and Tomadini. Spanish composers of oratorios: Francisco Andreví y Castellar, Ruperto Chapí, and Tomás Bretón
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    American Oratorio - 19th Century

    First American oratorios were composed during this time. Most were written in English. Composers in America: Trajetta American Composers: Heinrich, Hewitt, Bristow, Damrosch, Knowles Paine, and Parker. Relevant today: Parker's "Hora novissima" still performed today.
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    England Oratorio - 19th Century

    Little oratorio composition by English composers occurred during this time. The focus instead was on the compositions of Handel and foreign composers including Haydn,Saint-Saëns, Gounod, Liszt, Raff, Franck, Dvořák, and Mendelssohn. The oratorio culture was one of music festival performance. Composers: used Handel, Haydn, and Mendelssohn as models. Crotch, Clarke-Whitfeld, Ouseley, Bennett, Macfarren, Mackenzie, Cowen, and Elgar. New: Development of the Dramatic Oratorio
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    German Oratorio - 19th Century

    Subject matter: mostly traditional biblical stories (popular due to interest in Handel's oratorios). Newer apocalyptic stories also used. Development of sacred opera or secular/staged oratorio New: influence of Romantic period in harmony, melody, and use of orchestra; increased use of oratorios as music festivals, and increased chorus and orchestra size. Composer: Liszt, Eybler, Spohr, Schneider, Klein, and Mendelssohn
  • The Seasons (Die Jahreszeiten)

    "The Seasons" by Haydn was completed Well-known German oratorio of the late Classical style
  • Felix Mendelssohn

    Felix Mendelssohn
    Lift Thine EyesFelix Mendelssohn born
    Death: November 4, 1847 Influential person: composer of oratorios
    Popular works include "Elijah" (1846) and " Paulus" (1836)
    operated primarily in Germany
  • Minin i Pozharsky, ili Osvobozhdeniye Moskvï

    Earliest known oratorio composed in Russia Composer: S.A. Degtyaryov
  • Elijah

    Oratorio written by Felix Mendelssohn published
    Available in German and English (originally in German)
    Used scriptural text
    Popular during his time and still today
  • Paulus

    Oratorio by Felix Mendelssohn
    Available in German and English (originally in German)
    Based on scriptural text
  • "Jephtha" by J. H. Hewitt

    First known American composer creates an oratorio - "Jephtha."
  • Edward Elgar

    Edward Elgar
    The Spirit of the Lord is Upon MeEdgar Elgar Born
    Death: February 23, 1934 Influential person: composer of English oratorios
  • Horatio Parker

    Horatio Parker
    Composer of oratorio in America. Wrote "Hora novissima" in 1892 - still performed today
  • Lorenzo Perosi

    Lorenzo Perosi
    Death: 1956 Returned Italian oratorio to style and form of Carissimi Still utilized post-Wagnerian materials
  • England: Dramatic Oratorio

    Development of the Dramatic oratorio. Characterized by using Wagnerian principles, extending scenes, using the orchestra as a form of expression, and increased use of motifs and leitmotifs
  • Igor Stravinsky

    Death: April 6, 1971 Composer of oratorios during the 20th century. Fused genres of opera and oratorios to create a secular oratorio. Famous opera-oratorio: Oedipus Rex
  • St Ludmilla

    Composition by Czech composer: Dvořák Composed for Leed Festival in England
  • Parker: "Hora novissima"

    Finished composition of "Hora novissima" - only American oratorio still performed today. First performed in 1893
  • Arthur Honegger

    Arthur Honegger
    Death: 1955 Influential Swiss composer of oratorios during the 20th century.
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    Italy Oratorio - 20th Century

    Departure from the 'oratorio volgare' of the 18th and 19th centuries. Composers instead returned to the style of Carissimi although they used their post-Wagnerian materials. Composers: Perosi, Hartmann, Wolf-Ferrari, Malipiero, Refice, Vittadini, Veretti, and Dallapiccola
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    Switzerland Oratorio - 20th Century

    The 20th century saw a rise in oratorio compositions in Switzerland. Freuently a neo-Baroque technique was used. Composers: Willy Burkhard, Conrad Beck, Martin, and Honegger
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    England: 20th century Oratorio

    Edward Elgar most important composer of oratorios since Handel. Influenced by Wagnerian opera especially in the use of orchestra for expressive purposes. Composers: Elgar, Vaughan Williams, Walton, Berkeley, Fricker, Milner, Tippett, and Paul McCartney (kind of trippy to see that name associated with classical music)
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    Germany Oratorio - 20th Century

    Germay oratorios: exemplified in Franz Schmidt's "Das Buch mit sieben Seigeln" which addressed the apocalypse.
    Composers: Schmidt, Hindemith, and Joseph Haas. Schoenburg another German composer of oratorio of note although his work does not represent German oratorios of the 20th century
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    American Oratorios - 20th Century

    American oratorios in the 20th century had a wide variety of musical styles, and most rely on traditional subjects for their librettos.
    Composers: Charles Sanford Skilton, Robert Nathaniel Dett, Stefan Wolpe, Bernard Rogers, Franz Waxman, Vincent Persichetti, Dominick Argento, and Charles Wuorinen
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    Post WWII Oratorios

    Oratorios continued to develop. A variety of styles were used including old styles ('oratorio volgare'), new mixtures, altered styles, and new mediums were used. Saw great increase in number of oratorios from Russia (rose to popularity) Composers: Messiaen, Penderecki, Krenek, Henze, Stravinsky,Kabalevsky, Myaskovsky, Shaporin, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, and Shnitke
  • Spiritus intelligentiae sanctus

    Compostion by Krenek Used magnetic tape only