Native American Timeline

  • Navajo Wars

    Navajo Wars
    Navajo Wars were Native Americans vs. the United States. Most of the conflicts involved were raids. Apache leaders led attacks on outposts. Native American leader Geronimo surrendered in 1886; others followed.
  • Apache Wars

    Apache Wars
    Apache Wars were battles of the Native Americans vs. American settlers in the SW. Began with the Jicarilla War. After fighting the U.S. Army, Navajo were forced from their homeland and into reservations. Most of these conflicts were armed.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    Pike's Peak Gold Rush brought settlers, raised tension. Civil war insued. Evans & Chivington raised the Third Colorado Cavalry and led raids and clashes. Indians wanted peace & surrendered, but Chivington took troops to Sand Creek around an Indian Village. Killed men, women and children; easy victory. Silas Soule refused to fire. 150 Indians dead.
  • Red Cloud's War

    Red Cloud's War
    One of the most successful wars fought against the U.S. by an Indian Nation. The Sioux were led by Red Cloud; their most famous attack was against Lieutenant Colonel William Fetterman and his men, where they killed nearly 100 in less than 30 minutes. The war was ended in 1868 when Captain Fetterman sent a commission to make peace; a treaty was signed, agreeing that all the forts along the trail would be abandoned & the Sioux land would be given back to them. Didn't last; gold was discovered
  • Red River War

    Red River War
    Ended free roaming Indian populations on the Southern Plains. U.S. Army tried to remove Indian tribes from the Southern Plains and relocate them to reservations. Indians attacked the Adobe Walls post on June 27th, 1874, but were held off. They spread out over TX, but their access to land was gone and buffaloes were beginning to die out. They eventually surrendered.
  • Battle of the Little Bighorn

    Battle of the Little Bighorn
    Also known as "Custer's Last Stand." George A. Custer and his 700 soldiers initiated fighting with Sioux warriors at the Little Bighorn River. The Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho warriors were led by leaders such as Sitting Bull, Lame White Man, Crazy Horse and Gall. 268 American soldiers, including Custer, were killed. Major victory for the Sioux tribes.
  • "A Century of Dishonor" by Helen Hunt Jackson

    "A Century of Dishonor" by Helen Hunt Jackson
    Helen Hunt Jackson wanted to change government ideas and policies toward Native Americans. She realized the injustices against Indians after attending a meeting in Boston in 1879, where Standing Bear, a Ponca Indian, told of how his tribe was removed from their homeland by the government. She sent a copy of her book to every member in Congress; in 1881 they gave some relief to the Ponca people, but it did not have quite the impact she wanted. Nevertheless, the book left a great moral impression.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    Gave the president permission to divide Indian lands into reservations and to relegate what tribes stayed where. The purpose of the act was to encourage assimilation of Indians into American society, as land-owners and voters. However, another purpose of the act was for the government to acquire the "excess" Indian land and open it up for settlement of non-Indians.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    This battle ended Indian resistance against the United States. After Sitting Bull was killed, Big Foot commanded the fighting Lakota. The U.S. Army trapped them at Wounded Knee Creek and overcame them. Many were killed by random firing, including men, women & children. Sitting Bull was killed; he had seen his death of a "blow to the head" 5 years previously.