Mussolini & Italy Timeline

  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    March 17, 1861
    Gained independence from Austrian empire where the Risorgimento nationalist movement succeeded in creating an independent Italy. People of Italy far from united and underlying problems left Risorgimento process incomplete. This photo was chosen as it refers to the Risorgimento that was occurring and allowed the people to unite for a common goal.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    1870
    Catholic Church retained own separate state in Rome and surrounding area. The political disunity intensified by hostility of papacy. The papacy's opposition to liberal regime was moderated during the 1890s out of fear that it might give way to socialism and in 1904 the Pope permitted Catholics to vote where abstaining might result in socialist victory. This photo was chosen as it depicts how the land was divided into the Papal states furthering disuniting the people of Italy.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    1896
    The battle of Adwa can be deemed the most significant battle towards the Ethiopian’s as they were able to win the battle through being better equipped and outnumbering the Italians with their allies France and Russia. Italy was behind in the scramble due to it being a newly formed country and mainly poor, emphasizing their need to claim Ethiopia. This photo was chosen because it stereo-typically portrays the Ethiopians to be poorly equipped even though they won the war.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    September 29, 1911- November 1911
    Italian troops invaded the Turkish province of Libya (then part of the Ottoman empire) and initiated the Italo-Turkish war. The invasion was much more costly and time consuming then Italy had envisioned creating economic imbalance in Italy. But Italy was successful and was able to create an Italian Libya. This photo was chosen because it can provide insight towards Italy being more prepared in its invasion in comparison to its invasion with Ethiopia.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    November 1912
    Avanti means forward and took its name from its German counterpart. It became Italy’s daily newspaper and represented the Italian Socialist Party. Mussolini became the editor of it in 1912 where he praised violent revolution and soon pressured for intervention within WWI to create a better image of Italy. This photo was chosen because it demonstrates the significance of becoming editor as it can increase the number of followers and support they have.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    October 1914
    Nationalists believed that Italy needed to take intervention in order to gain more land and expand its empire. They wanted to reclaim the country’s terra irredenta. Mussolini started to side more with the nationalists view point and opposing the Socialist Party. Because of this opposition he was kicked out. This photo was chosen because it portrays Mussolini standing up for his opinions rather than following the ideologies he was born into.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    May 1915
    While the Italian parliament debated the decision, the interventionists organized street demonstrations demanding involvement towards the war. While these demonstrations continued to occur the liberal government already decided on Italy’s participation. On May 1915, Italy signed the treaty of London promising to join the war on the side of the triple entente. This photo was chosen because it shows the intended land Italy hoped to gain coming out of the war.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    January 1919
    Unemployment rose to over 2 million in 1919 in industrial workers beginning wave of militant action that lasted from early 1919 to 1920. In some areas the Socialists seized control of local government. But the government did little believing that the workers were less dangerous inside the factories than on the streets. Photo was chosen because shows how during this time the socialist movement began to gain momentum which produced worrisome towards individuals like Mussolini.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    September 1919
    Although fascio di combattimento was established in about 70 other towns, Mussolini’s network were soon overshadowed by the actions of Gabriele D’Annunzio. An inspiration to Mussolini as he decided to adopt his theatrical trappings such as the black shirts of the Arditti, the ancient Roman salute they used. This photo was chosen because it portrays the symbolic image of the group with the black shirts that eventually inspired Mussolini.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    March 23 1919
    In March Mussolini try to bring these disparate groups together. On 23rd March, 118 people, representing various political groupings, met in Milan formed fascio di combattimento. They intended to bring together nationalists and Socialists as well as various left and right wing. However, what really united them was their hatred of the liberal state. This photo was chosen because it demonstrates various political groups uniting over a common goal of disbanding the liberal state.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    May 1921
    Mussolini stressed the need for violence as necessary to prevent Bolshevik style revolution in Italy. Mussolini privately reassured Giolitti that talk of fascists revolution is not to be taken seriously. Giolitti offered alliance in anti-socialist national bloc for the national elections to be held in May 1921. This photo was chosen because Giolitti was the face of power at the time by leading the liberal government until Mussolini finally takes power.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    October 1921-November 1921
    October 1921 Mussolini persuaded members of the fascio di combattimento to reform the organization into a political party otherwise known as the PNF. Then in November 1921 Mussolini persuaded the fascist National Congress to elect him as a leader. This photo was chosen because the creation of the political groups “logo” provides great significance towards being remembered among the Italian people.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    October 1922
    The Ras intended to march on Rome and seize power with Mussolini or without, providing an ultimatum. The fascist squads took over town halls, railway stations and telephone exchanges across northern Italy. The King then offered four cabinet post for fascists but Mussolini rejected it. Mussolini then became the Prime Minister on October 29th 1922. This photo was chosen because it shows unity among squads which would be crucial towards Mussolini needing a large support of followers.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    July 1923
    The acerbo law was an electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and passed by the Italian parliament in 1923. The purpose of it was to give Mussolini’s fascist party a majority of deputies. He relied on the coalition with other parties in fear of certain parties that could unravel in force King Victor Emmanuel the 3rd to dismiss him. This photo was chosen because the law was named after Acerbo who proposed the law in first place demonstrating a strong support towards Mussolini.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    1923
    Corfu incident was a diplomatic and military crisis between Greece and Italy. It started when Italian general was attempting to resolve a border dispute between Albania and Greece and was murdered in Greek territory. Due to this Mussolini issued an ultimatum to Greece and when it was not accepted in whole, dispatched forces to occupy Corfu. Displayed a weakness within League of Nations. This photo was chosen because it puts in perspective how close they are geographically.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    June 1924-January 1925
    Giacomo Matteotti strongly opposed fascist violence and corruption that occur during their election. On June 10th 1924, Matteotti was abducted in Rome. It was widely assumed he was murdered by Dumini’s fascist thugs and many began to distance themselves from Mussolini’s regime. This photo was chosen because shows how Mussolini likely had associations with murder but in order to protect his image he publicized feeling remorseful towards Matteotti.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    1924
    The evidence of Mussolini’s involvement led most of the opposition deputies to boycott parliament in protest, under leadership of liberal Giovanni Armendola. Known as Aventine succession and was intended to force the King to dismiss Mussolini. The King refused to consider this instead blamed opposition for unconstitutional behavior. Photo was chosen because shows connection this event has with the Matteotti crisis as evidence with Mussolini’s connection towards crisis began to unfold.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    1925
    Battle for grain was created due to poor harvest and a consequent increase in grain imports.Goal was to get Italian farmers to grow more cereals, in order to reduce Italy’s dependence on foreign imports.It succeeded in almost doubling cereal production, weakness was in misuse of resources. Italy had to import olive oil, while exports of fruit and wine, numbers of cattle and sheep dropped. Photo was chosen because shows average Italian farmers trying to cooperate with Mussolini’s new aims.
  • Locarno Treaty Signed

    Locarno Treaty Signed
    December 1 1925
    Seven agreements negotiated at Locarno Switzerland on October 5th to 16th of 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1st. The purpose of the treaty was for the First World War western European powers in the new states of central Eastern Europe to secure the post war territorial settlement and normalize relations with the defeated German. This photo was chosen because it represents Europe gathering in unity despite the possible tensions between certain nations.
  • Battle for land and Battle for Lira

    Battle for land and Battle for Lira
    1926
    The battle of land was a further attempt to increase the amount of available farmland. Marshes and swamps were drained. Created room for many small farms and created work for the unemployed. On August 18th, 1926 the battle for the lira began when the Italian currency dropped. To restore its value the Lear was revalued. This photo was chosen because demonstrates the action that took place when attempting to drain water.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    1927
    The battle for births stressed the traditional role of women as housewives and mothers, and cause a downturn in employment opportunities for woman. It was launched in an attempt to increase the Italian population to create a large future army that would help expand Italy’s empire. This photo was chosen because it demonstrates Mussolini’s motives towards creating more soldiers with the increase of population.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    1928
    It was an international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or whatever origin they may be which may arise among them. It was signed by Germany, France, Italy, The United States, etc. A common criticism is that it did not live up to all of its aims as it didn't end war nor stop rising militarism and was unable to prevent the Second World war. This photo was chosen because it represents all the nations gathering.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    1929
    The latter entreaty recognized Vatican City as an independent state under the sovereignty of the Holy See. The Italian government also agreed to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the pal states. This photo was chosen because it demonstrates Mussolini signing the treaty with the Pope.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    October 1935-May 1936
    League of Nations ruled against Italy and voted for economic sanctions, but were never fully applied. Italy ignored sanctions, quit League, made special deals with Britain and France and ultimately annexed and occupied Abyssinia after defeating in a second Italia Ethiopian war. Crisis discredited the League and moved fascist Italy closer to an alliance with Nazi Germany. Photo was chosen because it shows Italy ignoring the league of nations and the fault within them.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    April 14 1935
    It was an agreement made in Stresa In Italy between the French Prime Minister, British Prime Minister, and Italian Prime Minister. Its goal was to reaffirm the Locarno treaties Inter declared that the independence of Austria would continue to inspire their common policy. They also agreed to resist any future attempt by Germany to change the Treaty of Versailles or rearm themselves. This photo was chosen because portrays the fear starting to emerge within Hitler rising in power.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    1936
    the coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. Plus it was in agreement that linked the two fascist countries. Messing up his life it was formalized by the pact of steel in 1939. The term axis powers came to include Japan as well. This photo was chosen because it signifies the change in the two fascist leaders relation as they began to grow closer with the start of WWII approaching.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    1936
    As conquest of Ethiopia in second Italian Abssynian war made it really confident in its power, Benito Mussolini joined the war to secure fascist control of the Mediterranean. The Royal Italian Navy played a substantial role in the Mediterranean blockade, and ultimately Italy supplied machine guns, artillery, and air crafts to the nationalist cause. Photo was chosen because demonstrates foreign involvement occurring within Spain’s internal conflict furthering faults of league of nations.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    September 1938
    The conference was an agreement permitting Germany’s annexation of the Sudetenland. Hitler had started to rearm Germany in defiance of the treaty of Versailles. He no wanted to gain the territory of Sudetenland which was in Czechoslovakia but had a large German population and important resources. This photo was chosen because it shows the encounters Hitler was taking and the tensions beginning to rise prior to world war II.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    April 7, 1939
    Italian invasion of Albania was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Kingdom of Albania. The conflict was a result of the imperialist policies of Italian dictator Mussolini. Albania was rapidly overrun, its ruler was forced into exile in the country was made part of the Italian empire. This photo was chosen as it represents all treaties and league of nations falling apart with the initiation of war breaking out.
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    May 22 1939
    Germany and Italy signed the pact of steel, formalizing the axis alliance with military provisions. Finally, on September 27, 1940 Germany, Italy, and Japan signed Tripartite pact known as the axis alliance. This photo was chosen because it represents the world going into war with the fear of two fascist leaders being allies.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII
    July 24 1943
    The fall of the fascist regime in Italy came as a result a parallel plots LED respectively by count Dino grandi and King Victor Emmanuel the third during the spring and summer of 1943, where the vote against Prime Minister Benito Mussolini at be at the meeting of the grand council of fascism on July 24th 1943 resulted in his disbandment. As a result a new government was established putting an end to 21 years of fascist rule and Mussolini was placed under arrest
  • Mussolini Killed

    Mussolini Killed
    April 28 1945
    In the final days of World War Two in Europe he was executed by an Italian partition in the small village in northern Italy as he attempted his escape toward Switzerland with his mistress.