China map

Modern China's History

  • Opium War

    Opium War
    During the late 1700s, Britain sold opium, which was grown in India, to China, the opium trade. By the early 1800s, many Chinese became addicted to the drug. The Chinese government did not like this trade because it cost a lot of silver. The government attempted to stop the exchange by passing harsh laws, such as death penalty. In 1839, the Chinese destroyed a British shipment of opium, so war began. In the Opium War, the British won. They had advanced technology and weapons compared to China.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    Boxer Rebellion
    Anti-foreign Chinese wanted to expell foreign and Christian Chinese. They formed the Fists of Righteous Harmony, or the Boxers (by the Westerners). Empress Ci Xi secretly supported them. In 1900, the Boxers attacked, killing many of the foreigners and Chinese. Western powers organized an army, which defeated the Boxers. As a result, China was forced to allow foreign troops and warships into China. It was important because it showed that the Qing dynasty lost the Mandate of Heaven and was weak.
  • Long March

    Long March
    Mao Zedong, the leader of the CCP gained the support of peasants, so the army increased. Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Nationalists, launched a campaign against the CCP. They were fighting with each other over power in China. The Nationalists greatly outnumbered the Communists, so the CCP fled from Chiang's armies in 1934. The Communists travelled more than 6,000 miles from SE to NW. This lasted over a year and few survived. This represented the bitter hardships the Communists experienced.
  • Great Leap Forward

    Great Leap Forward
    In 1958, Mao wanted to acheive modernization in China with the Great Leap Forward. He divided China into communes, which controlled the land and lives. The people built projects such as bridges needed for modern China. Mao expected food output to increase, however it ended in disaster. Peasants resisted, destroying crops. Farmers were building schools and roads, so food production fell. Since everyone was guaranteed a living, workers did not work hard.
  • Four Modernizations

    Four Modernizations
    Deng Xiaoping, China's ruler after Mao Zedong, had goals to help China achieve wealth and power. He stressed economic reform. Deng named his program the Four Modernizations. It called for modernizing agriculture, expanding industry, developing science and technology, and upgrading China's defense forces.
  • Tiananmen Square Massacre

    Tiananmen Square Massacre
    Deng Xiaoping eased some of the government's strict economic controls. Educated Chinese were encouraged by Deng;s moderate policies, so they wanted democratic reforms. In 1989, students in Beijing organized huge rallies to demand political freedom. At first, students were allowed to gather in Tiananment Square. Later on, The government forced them to go home. When the protesters refused, the army opened fire, killing and wounding thousands. The government's authority would not be challenged.