Management Timeline

  • Period: to

    History of Management

  • Conveyor Belt

    Conveyor Belt
    From 1908 to 1914, through trial and error, Henry Ford's talented team of production managers pioneered the development of the moving conveyor belt and thus changed manufacturing practices forever. This increased the companies efficiency, but also contributed towards a high turnover rate.To respond, Ford cut workers hours and doubled their wage. (Jones & George, 2014) Contemporary Management eighth ed., p. 41
  • Scientific Management

    Scientific Management
    Fredrick W. Taylor's the Scientific Management brought engineer rigor into business operation. (Great Moments in Management) Scientific management is defined as the study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 39-40
  • Fayol's Principals of Management

    Fayol's Principals of Management
    Henri Fayol, the CEO of Comambault Mining, identified 14 principals that he believed to be essential to increase the efficiency of the management process. (Jones & George, 2014)(p. 46-49) These principals are the basis for which management theory has been, and continues to be built upon.
  • Theory of Bureaucracy

    Theory of Bureaucracy
    During the industrial revolution, Max Weber developed the principles of bureaucracy to help Germany manage its growing industrial enterprises. These principals were a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 45-46
  • Hawthorne Studies

    Hawthorne Studies
    Studies that were conducted at the Western Electric The studies were designed to examine the physical working conditions on an employee's productivity and fatigue. For example, the tested the productivity of their employees at various levels of illumination. (McGraw-Hill & Irwin)
  • Behavioral Approach

    Behavioral Approach
    The behavioral approach incorporates psychological and social processes of human behavior to improve productivity and work satisfaction. Managers are encouraged to understand the various dynamics of the work environment and positively influence employee motivation and satisfaction. Mary P. Follett was a key contributor to the movement. (McGraw-Hill & Irwin) McGraw-Hill/Irwin: Management History Timeline
  • National Labor Relations Act

    National Labor Relations Act
    Also known as the Wagner Act, it required businesses to bargain in good faith with any union supported by the majority of their employees. This brought up some issues for managers because of the strikes that broke out by the groups trying to be represented and recognized. (Library of Congress) Library of Congress
  • Artificial Intelligence

    Artificial Intelligence
    Artificial intelligence has been defined as behavior by a machine that, if performed by a human being, would be called "intelligent." Artificial intelligence can be used to solve simple problems and tasks. Software has been created that can observe a manager and learn from him or her. For example, a program can learn which emails or data is important from "watching" these managers. (Jones & George, 2014) p.573-574
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    Abraham Maslow explored to see what motivates people beyond pure survival. (Harvard Business Review) He placed these 5 motivations into a pyramid. As the lowere level need of the pyramid is achieved, the next level of need becomes the dominant need. (McGraw-Hill & Irwin)
  • Internet

    The internet is described as a global system of computer networks that is easy to join and is used by employees of organizations around the world to communicate inside and outside their company. (Jones & George, 2014)(p 513) The internet allows people to communicate much quicker, and arguably more effectively in a business aspect. It also allowed for a much more global system.
  • Open System

    Open System
    An open system is defined as a system that takes in resources from its external environment and converts or transforms them into goods and services that are sent back to the environment, where they are bought by customers. (Jones & George, 2014)(p. 56-57) This was one of the most influencial views of how an organization is affected by its external environment. It was developed by Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn, and James Thompson.
  • Theory X & Y

    Theory X & Y
    Created by Douglas McGregor, Theory X and Theory Y were two sets of assumptions about how work attitudes and hehaviors not only dominate the way managers think but also affect how they behave in organizations. Theory X is based around the idea that employees are lazy and they need to be closely supervised, while Y is based on hard working employees that need a good work environment. (James & George, 2014) p.53-55
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    According to contingency theory, there is no one best way to organize. The organizational structures and the control systems that managers choose depend on characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 57-58
  • Equal Pay Act

    Equal Pay Act
    The Equal Pay Act requires men and women to be paid equally if they are performing equal work. (Jones & George, 2014)(p. 137) This Act was a huge step towards gender equality and is still very crucial in management.
  • Growth Share Matrix

    Growth Share Matrix
    The Boston Consulting group introduces the matrix, which crystallized the relationship between market share and market growth. (Harvard Business Review) Harvard Business Review
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in employment decisions on the basis of race, religion, sex, color, or national origin. It covers a wide range of employment decisions, including hiring, firing, pay, promotion, and working conditions. (Jones & George, 2014)(p. 137) This Act is currently a large part of management with the increasingly diverse workplace.
  • SWOT Analysis

    SWOT Analysis
    SWOT analysis is a planning exercise in which managers identify internal organizational strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) and external environmental opportunities (O) and threats (T). Based on SWOT analysis, managers at the different levels of the organization select the corporate, business, and functional strategies to best position the organization to achieve its mission and goals. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 237
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits discrimination against workers over the age of 40 and restricts mandatory retirement. It is currently still in use. (Jones & Goerge, 2014) p. 137
  • Agency Theory

    Agency Theory
    Michael Jensen and William Meckling introduced the idea of 'managers' and 'stockholders' interests need to be alighed. (Harvard Business Review) This was and still is quite important in companies in order for them to function successfully.
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act

    Pregnancy Discrimination Act
    The Pregnancy Discrimination Act prohibits discrimination against women in employment decisions on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical decisions. (Jones & George, 2014)(p. 137) This act is most commonly associated with women coming back from a maternity leave of absence.
  • Porter's 5 Forces

    Porter's 5 Forces
    "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." by Michael Porter, outlines the 5 forces that affect competitive positioning. (Harvard Business Review) Porter identifies these factors as major threats because they affect how much profit organizations competing within the same industry can expect to make. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 240-241
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against disabled individuals in employment decisions and requires that employers make accomidations for disabled workers to enable them to perform their jobs. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 137
  • Senge's 5 Disciplines

    Senge's 5 Disciplines
    The FIfth Discipline, by Peter Senge, applies systems thinking to the "learning organization." (Harvard Business Review) A learnning organization is defined as one in which managers do everything possible to maximize the ability of individuals and groups to think and behave creatively and thus maximize the potential for the organizational learning to take place. (James & George, 2014) p. 213
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    The Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination and allows for the awarding of punitive and compensatory damages, in addition to back pay, in cases of interanational discrimination. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 137
  • Family and Medical Leave Act

    Family and Medical Leave Act
    The Family and Medical Leave Act requires the employers to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for medical and family reasons, including paternity and illness of a family member. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 137

    The North American Free Trade Agreement aimed to abolish the tariffs of 99% of the goods traded between Mexico, Canada, and the United States from 1994-2004. Mexico benefited the most because Canada and the U.S. recieved unrestricted access to the Mexican marketplace. After NAFTA was signed, there was a flood of retail business investment into Mexico. (Jones & George, 2014) p.182-183

    The Central American Free Trade Agreement attempted to eliminate tariffs on products moving between the United States and all countries in Central America. CAFTA is considered a stepping stone toward establishing the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), which would establish a free trade agreement that would increase the economic prosperity throughout the Americas. (Jones & George, 2014) p. 182-183