Making a Nation

  • Eastern coast of Australia is claimed by Britain

    Lieutenant James cook claims the east coast of Australia
  • Aboriginal population is beleived to be between 315000 and 750000

  • First Fleet arrives in Australia

    The first settlement in Australia (now known as Sydney) is established this year.
  • Significant parts of coastline is mapped by now

    Majority of Western Australia, Northern Australia and Eastern Australia and Tasmania had been mapped, though Southern Australia was yet to be explored
  • Victorian coastline is mapped by George Bass

  • Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) is determined to being separate from the Australian Mainland

    George Bass and Matthew Flinders determined that Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) was separate from the mainland of Australia
  • Matthew Flinders departs England to explore the southern coastline

    Matthew Flinders leaves England for Australia to begin his exploration of Australia's southern coastline (bottom of WA, SA and VIC)
  • Some Tasmanian settlements are established

  • The Blue Mountains in New South Wales are crossed

  • Road through the Blue Mountains is completed

  • Town of Bathurst is established

    The road throught the Blue Mountains allowed access
  • Goulburn is settled during the early 1820s

    Blue Mountain road allows access
  • Wool Industry in Australia undergoes significant development

    This means that grassland areas, mainly devoid of eucalypts due to advanced techniques of controlled burning by Indigenous Australians, was also in high demand. However, this lead to the sheep using the areas significantly destroying various environmental elements.
  • Moreton Bay Penal Colony established

    initially isolated and not open to free settlement
  • Port Essington (in NT) established

    This was only used between 1824 and 1849, when it was finally fully abandoned.
  • Van Diemen's Land (now tasmania) becomes an indavidual colony

  • King George Sound settlement established

    Edmund Lockyer brought 23 convicts and 23 marines
  • Captain C. H. Freemantle takes possession of the portion of the continient not called 'New South Wales'

  • Port Arthur is established. It began as nothing more than a timber station.

  • Moreton Bay colony reaches its peak capacity of convicts (947)

  • Port Arthur is now a convict colony.

    Port Arthur became on of the harshest, cruelest convict colonies that enforced severe physical and psycological punishment unpon convicts.
  • John Batman uses Aborigines in an attempt to establish an agreement.

    John Batman takes seven Aborigines from the Sydney district to help him 'negotiate' with local Aborigines about buying land from them
  • South Australia becomes the first free-settlemt only colony when settlers arrive.

    John Batman takes seven Aborigines from the Sydney district to help him 'negotiate' with local Aborigines about buying land from them
  • MOreton Bay colony is open to free settlers (no longer exclusive to convicts)

  • The first 'Afghans' arrive in Australia

    The first 18 'Afghans' (men mainly from the Middle East and South Asia) arrived in Australia. In the near future, me such as these formed the 'cheap labour' in places similar to South Australia which had no convicts/ex-convicts to draw upon as labourers.
  • Myall Creek Massacre

    28 Aboriginal men, women and children were sadly murdered by 12 stockmen in the Myall Creek Massacre. This was particularly significant though, because it was the only one of many other massacres that occurred over the country where white men were charged with murder. 7 out of the 12 were eventually hanged.
  • Large numbers of Germans arrive in South Australia

    Large numbers of Lutheran German settlers migrate to South Australia. Many did not accept state control of the church. They played a significant role in establishing agriculture and vineyards.
  • The Darling Downs (in Queensland) become settled

  • The Beginning of the Great Australian Gold Rush

    Huge population Growth was experienced in the colony
  • Several thousand Chinese people migrated to Australia, encouraged by the Gold Rush

  • Victoria becomes a separate state to New South Wales

  • Black Saturday Bushfires devastate Victoria

  • Port Arthur is no longer a convict settlement

  • Eureka Rebelliion

    The Eureka Rebellion an armed conflict, and the birth of democracy in Australia occurred
  • A poll tax of 10 pounds ($20 equivalent) was introduced on Chinese immigration.

  • First idea about Federal Union take place.

    Due to lack of interest for the cause, it was left alone in the near future.
  • Chinese diggers are attacked ont eh gold fields

    On the Goldfields, 20 Europeans violently attacked Chinese gold diggers by beating them and destroying or stealing their possessions. The Europeans were afraid to share the gold deposits among them.
  • The hey-day of the bushrangers begins.

    It is believed there were over 2000 of them roaming the continent during their peak.
  • South Sea Islanders become another source of 'cheap labour' for European Autralians

  • Working conditions for the majority of Australians improve

  • The very first Mosque is constructed in Australia. It was built from courogated iron in Maree.

  • A violent European uprising against the Chinese at Lambing Flat

    Chinese migrants were violently driven from Lambing Flat. Three of the leaders of this racist attack were arrested by police forces, however this lead to other complications later on.
  • Aussie Rules football is first played under the title 'Melbourne Rules'

  • The first 100 camel arrive in Australia

    Joseph Stuckey brings the first 100 camels (along with 31 cameleers) to Australia.
  • Melbourne town hall is built

  • Australian Natives Association is Formed

    In the future this group of people would influence serious decisions regarding the federation of Australia.
  • Overland Telegraph Line from Adelaide to Darwin is completed.

    It was built with significant assistance from Afghan workers.
  • First Japanese arrive in Australia.

    Japanese often worked as deep-sea divers for pearls in the Torres Strait.
  • Sanitary development increases in cities.

    South Australia is the first state to use a combination of water-borne sewage movement and sewage farming. Other cities followed suit.
  • Establishment of long-distance rail lines begins.

  • Sir Henry Parkes proposes a federal council.

    However it was dissolved in 1899. Through the 1880s ideas for Federation began to be taken more seriously than in previous decades.
  • 60% of the population was now Australian-born.

    A sense of Australian identity and patriotism began to become established.
  • A further 300 camels and 56 cameleers arrive in Australia.

  • The Queensland government of the time forbids Indigenous voting rights.

  • Chinatown district in Fortitude valley is stormed.

    1000 European rioters stormed the Chinatown district in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane. Shops and possessions were destroyed.
  • A second Mosque in Australia is built. It was constructed from brick in Adelaide.

  • Queensland is in civil war between government and unions.

    Queensland is in civil war between armed unions and government forces. Large skirmishes, attacks on wool sheds and naval battles took place in the colony
  • By this time, 62000 South Sea Islanders had been brought to Australia.

    Many worked on cotton plantations in south-east Queensland.
  • The New South Wales Labor Electoral League is formed.

    They used the government to improve situations for workers.
  • Construction of Melbourne Parliament House is completed.

  • Western Australia follows Queensland by legally removing Aborigines' viting rights

  • Queensland forms the world's first Labor government through a coalition. It lasts all of 6 days.

  • South Australian women are the first in Australia to be granted suffrage (receive the ability to vote in their colony's elections)

  • Australia experiences one of it's worst droughts. It lasted until 1903.

  • The Victorian Football League is formed. (Their code was AFL)

  • The Japanese population now outnumbered the European population of Australia.

  • Australian soldiers fight in the Boer War until 1903.

  • Victorian government introduces an Act, making part-Aboriginal children the responsibility of Ministers.

  • Australia's population reached approximately 3.8 million.

    75% of these people had been born in Australia, but were descended from parents/grandparents born in the Britain or Ireland. A further 15% were direct migrants.

  • Aboriginal population now reduced to 93000

  • Immigration Restriction Act was passed by parliament. This was the start of a 'White Australia', where particularly Asian immigrants were banned. There was general support of the Bill from European-Australians.

  • The Federal government inflicts further discrimination on Indigenous people by stopping them from voting in all Federal elections.

  • All Australian women have the right to vote in federal elections.

    Each state acheives this goal at a different stage.
  • Victorian women are the last Australians to receive suffrage after the passing of the Bill six years prior.

  • Federal Invalid and Old Age Pension Act is passed.

    It entitled all eligible Australians to 10 shillings (equivalent to $1) per week of financial support. Regulations included 20 years of living in Australia and you must be of European descent.
  • The New South Wales Government created a 'child protection' act about Aboriginal Children

    which makes it easy for authorities to remove Aboriginal children from their parents. This was evidently not concerned with the children's welfare.
  • Begnning of WWI. Australian soldiers fight in battles such as Gallipoli, the Somme and Beersheeba, as well as many more.

    Many Australian lives are lost, however the 'Spirit of the ANZAC' is developed