Lutherans in North America

  • Rasmus Jensen

    First Lutheran Service in North America, in the Manitoba arctic.
  • Classical Assembly

    5 parishes in New York and New Jersey formed under William Berkenmeyer.
  • Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg

    Arrives in Pennsylvania.
  • Pennsylvania Ministerium

    Under the guidance of Muhlenberg. More Pietistic than Classical Assembly, but opposed Zinzindorf and the Moravians' unionism.
  • Pennsylvania Ministerium (Constitution)

    Finally organizes with a constitution.
  • Pennsylvania Ministerium restructuring

    Breaks into 5 geographical districts to better cover the great expanses of land in the New World.
  • Loyalist Lutherans enter Canada

    Influx of Loyalist Lutherans to the Canadas and Nova Scotia (both mercenaries as well as those who settled previously)
  • New York Ministerium

    F. A. C. Muhlenberg founding pastor, close relationship with Pennsylvania Ministerium.
  • South Carolina Synod

    Unionistic synod in the Carolinas.
  • First lay delegates

    First time lay delegates could vote in the Pennsylvania Ministerium.
  • Henkel Press

    Solomon and Ambrose Henkel form press to produce resources for the Lutheran Church. Print resources in English and German including Augsburg Confession, Book of Concord, Small Catechism, Hymnals.
  • North Carolina Synod

    Broke off from South Carolina Synod in response to the unionism practised, wanted to focus more on subscription to the Augsburg Confession and Small Catechism.
  • Hartwick Seminary

    Oneonta, NY. Never a huge seminary, but remained open until 1941.
  • Ohio Synod

    At first, it was created as a conference in the Pennsylvania Ministerium. Paul Henkel also had a hand in forming this.
  • Prussian Union

    Frederick Wilhelm III orders the Lutheran and Calvinist Churches in Prussia to merge. Slowly rolls out changes over the next 20 years.
  • Ohio Synod (Independence)

    Now the Ohio Synod is an independent body. It was more conservative in nature than the Pennsylvania Ministerium.
  • Tennesse Synod

    First blip of Confessional Lutheranism in America. Formed under the influence of Paul Henkel and his sons.
  • German Theological Seminary

    Canton, OH. Becomes the Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary in Columbus, OH.
  • Saxon Emigration

    The Old Lutheran Saxon immigrants, under Martin Stephan, arrive in St. Louis.
  • Martin Stephan Defrocked

    Martin Stephan defrocked, deposed, exiled from Saxon colony for adultery, misuse of funds, and abuse of people.
  • Prussian Emigration

    About 1200 Prussians leave with J. A. A. Grabau.
  • Grabau's Hirtenbrief

    Grabau weighs in on the issue which the Saxons are facing and the uncertainty of their calls. It arrives in 1841.
  • F. C. D. Wyneken

    Theologically conservative itinerant pastor with the Pennsylvania Ministerium. Works in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. Writes "The Needs of German Lutherans in North America" and sends it to German lands looking for pastors and mission minded individuals to help.
  • Altenburg Debate

    April 15 and 21 there is a debate at the College in Altenberg regarding the emigration, pastoral calls, etc between Walther and Marbach.
  • Saxons Reply to Hirtenbrief

    C. F. W. Walther and the Saxons reply to Grabau's letter.
  • Concordia Seminary

    Altenberg College moves to St. Louis, Walther becomes first president.
  • J. K. Wilhelm Löhe

    Responds to Wynicken's letter. Begins training men to send to North America. Does half the training in Neundettleslau and then sends them to finish in North America. Sends 81 pastors. Influential in Ohio, Missouri, Buffalo, and Iowa Synods.
  • Der Lutheraner

    Newspaper begun. It was widely circulated and largely responsible for the large growth of the future Missouri Synod.
  • Franconian Emigration

    First group of Franconian colonists sent by Löhe to Michigan. They form Frankenmuth.
  • Pittsburgh Synod

    Served the area between the centres of the Ohio Synod and Pennsylvania Ministerium. It was much more pietistic in nature than both. Influential in early Lutheranism in Canada.
  • Old Lutherans

    Dissenters to the Prussian Union in Prussia but also those in other German territories who were opposed to unionism and rationalism and instead promoted confessionalism.
  • German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States

    Founded by a group of Löhe pastors, the Saxons, and Franconians. 25 congregations represented with 12 voting pastors, 10 advisory, and 4 lay delegates. The majority of the pastors were Löhe men.
  • Synod of the Lutheran Church Emigrated from Prussia (Buffalo Synod)

    Grabau and company's synod formed in and among Buffalo, NY.
  • Concordia Theological Seminary

    Ft. Wayne, IN. Founded by Löhe to finish the training of pastors begun in Neundettelslau. Later given to the Missouri Synod.
  • "Father" Adam Keffer

    Layman. Walked from Toronto to Ohio Synod asking for a pastor. He was rejected but sent to Pittsburgh Synod, they said they would think about it. Came back to Pittsburgh Synod the next year to ask if they had finished thinking about whether they would send a pastor.
  • Canada Conference

    Part of the Pittsburgh Synod, 18 congregations were a part of it, including those associated with Adam Keffer.
  • Wartburg Seminary

    Also founded by Löhe so he would have a seminary in North America still his own.
  • Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Canada

    Canada Conference becomes independent. Very pietistic in nature, but also, not at all unionistic.
  • Grabau's Heresy Trial

    Grabau was tried for his Romanizing views. Lead to a schism where 12 pastors left to join the LCMS, 6 created an anti-Grabau Buffalo Synod (would eventually join WELS), and 3 remain with Grabau in Buffalo Synod.