Kashmir Conflict Story

Timeline created by facebooker_10156480842330528
  • Kashmir is formed

    Following victory in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the East India Company annexes the Kashmir Valley. The princely state of Jammu & Kashmir (generally called Kashmir) is formed.
  • Treaty of Amritsar, Sikhs defeated, British sell Kashmir to Dogras

    Sikhs overthrown by the British in the Anglo-Sikh war giving control to a European power for the first time. The Treaty of Amritsar, signed on 16 March 1846, formalised the arrangements in the Treaty of Lahore between the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War. Kashmir Vale is sold to the Dogras by the British in exchange for a small tribute. Britishers continue to economically control the vale.
  • Hindu minority

    Hindus reduced drastically in number by 19th century, and only a thin population of Kashmiri Pundits reside in the valley
  • First organised protest by Kashmiri people

    The movement against the Maharaja in Kashmir begins but is suppressed by State forces.
  • Creation of All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference

    Sheikh Abdullah sets up ‘All Jammu & Kashmir Muslim Conference’ for freedom from the Maharaja's rule, which later became National Conference in 1939. The Glancy Commission in April 1932, highlights the inequality of the Muslim population & discusses the need for their adequate representation in the state's services; the Maharaja accepts recommendations but delays implementation; the Maharaja grants a Constitution providing a legislative assembly for the people,but the Assembly remains powerless.
  • Quit Kashmir

    The National Conference launches the ‘Quit Kashmir’ movement demanding abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar and a call of sovereignty for the people of Kashmir.
  • Pakistan Resolution passed

    Pakistan Resolution is passed at Iqbal Park, Lahore, demanding the establishment of an independent state in area in which the Muslims are in majority. It states, 'No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary.'
  • JIJK, a pro Sufi organisation, is established firmly

    The Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir is rooted in Islamic reformist activities in Kashmir which developed in the late nineteenth century when the urban Kashmiri Muslim middle-class rose against Dogra rule. The Anjuman was launched in 1905 in an effort to eradicate un-Islamic practices amongst Kashmiri muslims. In 1945, the Jama Masjid of Srinagar becomes a major meeting point to spread relevant literature.
  • Azad Kashmir comes into being

    Muslim Conference adopts 'Azad Kashmir' resolution on July 26 1946 calling for the end of autocratic government and claims the right of people to elect their own constituent assembly.
  • Standstill agreement

    Kashmir signs the Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. The Maharaja delays his decision to accede into either India or Pakistan.
  • Kashmir related riots on either side of the border

    Post partition Hindu/muslim conflict and riots in Sialkot (pro Muslim) and Jammu (pro Hindu) respectively.
  • RSS in J&K, 1947

    After the end of the Dogra rule, RSS and Hindu leaders form the Jammu Praja Parishad, favouring Jammu to be a part of India. The RSS was initially in co-operation with the Maharaja's decision, but when the tribals invaded the valley and communal riots opened, RSS changed its stance.
  • Resolution 1947 passed by the UN

    Call for immediate cease-fire from both sides, withdrawal of Pakistani insurgencies and troop and reduction of Indian militia in the region
  • Indian Independence Act

    The British Parliament passes the Indian Independence Act, relinquishing control of the subcontinent to the Dominions of India and Pakistan.
  • Muslims call for accession to Pakistan

    the Muslim Conference started calling for the state's accession to Pakistan
  • Pakistan is formed

    The Dominion of Pakistan (in 1956 it became the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) comes into being.
  • India is formed

    The Union of India (officially the Republic of India) comes into being.
  • Operation Gulmarg Plan

    According to Indian military sources, the Pakistani Army prepared a plan called Operation Gulmarg and put it into action as early as 20 August, a few days after Pakistan's independence. The plan got accidentally revealed to an Indian officer, Major O. S. Kalkat serving with the Bannu Brigade.
  • Indo Pak war begins (1947-49)

    Pashtuns from Pakistan’s North West Frontier Province attack Kashmir and the Maharaja’s forces. The Maharaja ask India for help, who abides under the conditions that he relinquish control over defense,communication and foreign affairs to India. The Maharaja agrees,signs the Instrument of Accession. The Indian Army enters to repel the invaders. Sheikh Abdullah endorses the accession as ad-hoc which would be ultimately decided by a plebiscite and is appointed head of the emergency administration.
  • India goes to UN

    India takes the Kashmir problem to the UN Security Council. The resolution orders the cessation of hostilities and a formulation of a truce agreement, and that a plebiscite should determine the future of Jammu and Kashmir. However, both countries cannot agree on the terms of demilitarisation.
  • Indo Pak war ends

    A ceasefire is reached after 1 year, 2 months and 2 weeks
  • Military on both sides stand-by

    In 1950, discussions go back and forth which changing stances on either side. Scholars stand separated on the stands of both nations. PMs of both countries accuse one another of bad intentions.
  • Nehru and Bogra consider plebiscite, Nehru withdraws

    After citing a possibility for a plebiscite in Kashmir, US provided military support to Pakistan in 1954. They failed at providing the same to India, in the wake of which, Nehru withdrew the plebiscite offer and declared a status quo.
  • Dixon plan fails to materialise

    Sir Owen Dixon's plan for the resolution of Kashmir; Ladakh to India, Gilgit to Pakistan, splitting Jammu and keeping Kashmir valley in plebiscite didn't go ahead as the Nehru-Led government failed to accept the norms of a demilitarised Kashmir.
  • Jama'at-i-Islami Hind gains traction

    Jama'at-i-Islami Hind separated from the Kashmir branch owing to the disputed nature of J&K. Sa'aduddin was particularly concerned about the Muslims of Jammu as they had suffered communal violence abetted by the Maharaja during Partition and suffered from the feeling of being an insecure minority thereafter. He warned his colleagues in Kashmir that Jammu Muslims needed to be helped otherwise they could be Hinduised in terms of culture and faith.
  • Indus Waters Treaty is signed

    (IWT) was signed in Karachi by India PM Pt. Nehru and Pakistan President Ayub Khan. According to this agreement, control over the water flowing in three "eastern" rivers of India — the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej with the mean flow of 33 million acre-feet (MAF) — was given to India, while control over the water flowing in three "western" rivers of India — the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum with the mean flow of 80 MAF — was given to Pakistan
  • Sino-Indian War 1962, Line of Actual Control

    China easily won the war and gained Aksai Chin from the underprepared and under-equipped Indian armed forces. The Trans-Karakoram was claimed by China, and borders Pakistan. The Siachen Glacier sits at the crossing of these three borders and the region was designated with the Line of Actual Control.
  • Defence Act is passed

    The Defence Act of 1962 was passed after India lost the Sino-Indian war of '62. The act allowed hundreds of Chinese origin or Chinese connected people to be prosecuted in India.
  • Operation Gibraltar

    Strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, and start a rebellion against Indian rule. If successful, Pakistan hoped to gain control over Kashmir, but the operation resulted in a major failure. Preface to the 1965 war that followed. (note: claims say that Kashmiri locals side with Indian army and give details of Pakistani militant whereabouts, thus ruining their strategy)
  • 1965 India Pakistan War

    On 5 August 1965 between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control dressed as Kashmiri locals headed for various areas within Kashmir. Indian forces, tipped off by the local populace, crossed the cease fire line on 15 August. Riveting Aerial, Naval, Land battles followed. At ceasefire, India gained the upper hand, but their victory, as sure and strong as it was, was inconclusive overall. Numerous neutral assessments made by national and foreign experts.
  • Indo-Pak War of '71, Simla Agreement

    Pakistan loses and concedes Bangladesh, which becomes an independent nation. India establishes itself as a powerhouse in the region. PMs Bhutto and Gandhi meet to resolve Kashmir. The Simla Agreement states that the Kashmir issue is to be resolved only through dialogue and peaceful settlement.
  • 1975 Indira-Sheikh Accord

    Following Pakistan's loss in 1971 and India's growing stature, the 1975 Indira–Sheikh accord between Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allowed the former to become Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir again after 11 years. India gets legal control of Kashmir and continues to imply Section 370.
  • Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front is born

    JKLF was founded by Amanullah Khan in Birmingham in June 1976 from the erstwhile UK chapter of the 'Plebiscite Front'. Maqbool Bhat is often credited as being its co-founder
  • Jami'at-i-Tulaba is established, education in the Valley

    Jamaat-e-Islami understood the importance of education in the vale and is credited with opening numerous schools, finding the Indian education system threatening the local Islamic culture. In 1977 the JIJK created the Islami Jami'at-i-Tulaba (The Islamic Union of Students) for student members and sympathisers.
  • JKLF militant Maqbool Bhat is killed, Kashmiri nationalists align

    strikes and protests by Kashmiri nationalists broke out in the region, where large number of Kashmiri youth participated in widespread anti-India demonstrations, which faced heavy handed reprisals by the state forces. Farooq Abdullah loses control.
  • India controls Siachen

    The Indian Army gains control of the Siachen Glacier, where the Line of Control ends.
  • GM Shah becomes CM

    GM Shah becomes CM of Kashmir, replacing Farooq Abdullah. To win the trust of Kashmiri muslims, Shah uses local separatists as allies. In the following months, he built a mosque inside a temple space in Jammu. Both sides were eventually angered, and the exodus took place thereafter.
  • GM Shah replaced by Jagmohan, Hindu/Muslim war

    GM Shah's government was dismissed by the then Governor Jagmohan following communal riots in south Kashmir. This implied a 'Hindu' (Delhi) government in combat with a 'Muslim' Kashmir. Jagmohan also became the direct ruler of Kashmir.
  • Farooq Abdullah takes over, elections rigged

    After Sheikh Abdullah's death, his son Farooq takes over as the secular party's head, but falls out by lack of favour. After being removed by Indira Gandhi, he forms an alliance with the Congress a year later. The elections are claimed to have been rigged in his favour.
  • JIJK loses election sorely

    The Sufi agency of JIJK loses the election badly, hardly managing to gather any seats, marking the eventual end to their apparent visibility.
  • Major conflict : Insurgency in Response to Elections

    Apparent rigged elections cause insurgency groups to go against the Central Government. They are armed by Pakistan, who use this as a chance to gain impetus within the conflict. The situation is murky by the amount and variety of stakeholders.With JKLF at forefront large number of militant groups like Allah Tigers, People’s League and Hizb-i-Islamia sprung up. AFSPA is imposed on Kashmir. JKLF used distinctly Islamic themes to mobilise crowds and justify their use of violence
  • Operation Sadbhavana launched (ongoing since 1988)

    An operation aimed at creating goodwill and healing amongst the locals. Officially launched in 1998, especially in rural areas near the Line of Control (LOC) where insurgency and militancy had caused destruction to property and a sense of alienation. It includes initiatives such Education, Women Empowerment, Sports etc.
  • HAJY core group formed

    Post the rigged elections, JKLF members crossed over to Azad Kashmir for arms training and returned to Srinagar. Yasin Malik, Hamid Sheikh, Ashfaq Wani and Javed Ahmad Mir, formed the core group — dubbed the "HAJY" group — of the JKLF militants in the Kashmir Valley. The enormity of popular support received for their call for independence surprised them. Within two years, the JKLF in the Valley emerged as the "vanguard and spearhead of a popular uprising" against the Indian state.
  • Exodus of Kashmiri Pundits

    The Hindus of the Kashmir Valley, a large majority of whom were Kashmiri Pandits, were forced to flee the Kashmir valley as a result of being targeted by JKLF and Islamic insurgents during late 1989 and early 1990. Of the approximately 300,000 to 600,000 Hindus living in the Kashmir Valley in 1990 only 2,000–3,000 remain there in 2016.
  • JKLF kidnap Rubaiya

    Rubaiya, daughter of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, Home minister of India in the V. P. Singh government. The kidnappers demanded the release of thirteen of their militants in exchange for Rubaiya's release. CM Farooq Abdullah did not want to capitulate. But the Central government accepted and freed the jailed militants. Rubaiya was kidnapped within five days of her father being made the first Muslim Minister for Home Affairs by the Government to instil confidence within the Kashmiri people.
  • Ashfaq Wani killed

    Ashfaq Wani was killed in a battle with Indian security forces
  • Yasin Malik captured

    Yasin Malik is captured in an injured state and kept prisoner until May 1994.
  • Kunan Poshpora incident

    Indian armed forces search the village after they were attacked by locals; locals claimed that about 23-100 women were raped in this period. Army denies these claims. Hizbi Islami denies the charge that they fired first.
  • Most JKLF members are captured or surrendered

  • 1993 Lal Chowk Fire

    Alleged claims that the fire was started by pro-militia. Locals say the fire was started by BSF forces. The fire claimed nearly 50 houses, 10000 bullets were fired in the conundrum of the ensuing confrontation between the para-troops and locals. 260 people dead.
  • Malik released on bail, calls for ceasefire, JKLF splits

    Malik's call for peaceful struggle was unacceptable to Amanullah Khan, who removed him as the president of JKLF. In return, Malik expelled Khan from the chairmanship. Thus JKLF had split into two factions. The Pakistan government recognised Yasin Malik as the leader of JKLF, which further complicated the situation. Nearly 300 JKLF members killed by Indians during the period.
  • 1998 Hindu Massacre

    Hindus killed at various sites - Chamba, Wandhama, Chapnari, Prankote
  • India becomes a Nuclear Power

  • Pakistan becomes nuclear power

    Pakistan undertakes five underground nuclear detonations
  • Vajpayee-Sharif summit

    Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee meets with Nawaz Sharif, his Pakistani counterpart, in Lahore. The two sign the Lahore Declaration, the first major agreement between the two countries since the 1972 Simla Accord. Both countries reaffirm their commitment to the Simla Accord, and agree to undertake a number of 'Confidence Building Measures' (CBMs). Some of the diplomatic gains are eroded, however, after the Kargil conflict breaks out in May.
  • Kargil War, 1999 - Pakistan's loss and India's gain

    The Kargil war ensues after Pakistan sends infiltrators following the cold season. Pakistan's planning prevailed since over a decade. Heavy casualties are met on both sides, and the highest altitude warfare in human history results in an Indian victory. War lasts for 3 months and Indians manage to win back most territory. Pakistan is criticised by the global community for failing to respect the LoC, US is pulled in to mediate post-war discussions. Indian economy improves.
  • Chittisinghpura massacre

    35 sikhs killed in Anatnag by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants.
  • Amarnath Massacre

    Massacre of at least 89 people to 105 and injury to at least 62 people, in at least five different coordinated attacks by Kashmiri separatist militants in Anantnag district and Doda district of Kashmir Valley in India.
  • 2001 Kishtwar massacre

    Killing of 17 Hindu villagers in village Ladder near Kishtwar in Doda District of Jammu and Kashmir by alleged militants of Lashkar-e-Taiba on 3 August 2001.
  • 2002 Raghunath Temple bombings

    Two fidayeen terrorist attacks in 2002 on the Raghunath Temple in Jammu in India. Built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1860, the Raghunath temple is dedicated to Hindu God Rama.
  • Amanullah features in 20 most wanted terrorists

    India enlists Amanullah as a much wanted terrorist after the 2001 Delhi parliament attacks.
  • 2002 Qasim Nagar massacre

    The killing of 29 Hindu labourers in Qasim Nagar on the outskirts of Jammu (city) in Jammu and Kashmir by alleged Islamic militants on 13 July 2002.
  • Operation Sarpavinash (Apr-May 2003)

    Indian army flushes out terrorists who made bases in the Hilkaka Poonch-Surankot area of the Pir Panjal range in Jammu and Kashmir during April–May 2003. In the operation the Indian army killed 64 terrorists belonging to various jihadist outfits. The system of hideouts used by the terrorists found during this operation was the largest ever in the known history of insurgency in J&K. Main insurgents: Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), Harkat-ul-Jihad-e-Islami, al-Badr and Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)
  • 2003 Nadimarg massacre

    Killing of 24 Hindus in the village of Nadimarg in Pulwama District of Jammu and Kashmir by terrorists on 23 March 2003.
  • Pakistan claims to stop supporting insurgency

    Pakistan began to end its support for insurgents because terrorist groups linked to Kashmir twice tried to assassinate Pak President Gen. Pervez Musharraf. His successor, Asif Ali Zardari has continued the policy, calling insurgents in Kashmir "terrorists". Although it is unclear if Pakistan's intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence, thought to be the agency aiding and controlling the insurgency is following Pakistan's commitment to end support for the insurgency in Kashmir.
  • 2005 - Malik and Amanullah reunite in Pakistan

    After nearly a decade, Malik and Amanullah meet in Pakistan and reunite JKLF.
  • Farooq Papa splits from JKLF

    Farooq Papa along with a few other leading members split from the JKLF and form their own organisation
  • Survey of Indian Army-related rapes in Kashmir

    Indian army was accused of nearly 200 rapes. In 2005 Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a survey in Kashmir which found that the number of people who had witnessed a rape in Kashmir since 1989 was comparably far higher than the number of people who had witnessed a rape in other conflict zones such as Chechnya and Sri Lanka.
  • Rapes/human rights violations by militants

    Militants are responsible for rapes and human rights violations since 1947. Periodic rape and slaughter of locals by militants supported by Pakistan is documented by Amnesty, International Commission of Jurists, Human Rights Watch and the US state department.
  • 2006 Doda Massacre

    Refers to the massacre of 35 Hindu civilians by terrorists in Doda district in Jammu and Kashmir on 30 April 2006.
  • CM Abdullah tries to repeal AFSPA

    Chief Minister of India-administered Jammu and Kashmir tries to repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, but to no avail.
  • Yasin Malik and LeT Chief share space

    Yasin Malik shared the dais with the banned Lashker-e-Taiba chief Hafiz Muhammad Saeed at a protest in Islamabad. The move was criticised by many, including Muslim bodies.
  • Operation Calm Down

    Following the death of Burhan Wani, Over 4000 additional troops were deployed as part of Operation Calm Down to bring back order to the region, but direct instructions were given to the troops to use minimal force. The troops were mainly deployed in South Kashmir.
  • Burhan Wani is killed

    He was killed in an encounter with the Indian security forces on 8 July 2016 at the age of 22 which made him a folk hero in Kashmir. Widespread protests erupted in the Kashmir valley after Wani's death. The violence which erupted after his death was described as the worst unrest in the region since the 2010 Kashmir unrest,[18][19] with Kashmir being placed under 53 consecutive days of curfews imposed by authorities that was lifted from all parts of the region on 31 August 2016.
  • Uri Attack, Retaliation and Effects

    4 militants attack an Indian outpost on the LoC, Uri on 9th Sept. On Sept 29, India retaliates with surgical strikes, sending army across the border and killing about 12 militants. SAARC summit of Islamabad is postponed. BCCI cancels Indo-Pak cricket, Pakistani actors disallowed in Bollywood. Pakistan in return bans all Indian radio content. PM Modi and government condemns Uri attack.
  • Operation All Out

    A joint offensive launched by Indian security forces in 2017 to flush out militants and terrorists in Kashmir until there is complete peace in the state. Operation All-Out includes the Indian Army, CRPF, Jammu and Kashmir Police, BSF and IB. It was launched against numerous militant groups including Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Hizbul Mujahideen and Al-Badr. Launched due to unrest caused after the death of Burhan Wani in 2016.
  • BJP wins elections in Kashmir

    JKNC and JDP boycott the elections. BJP wins.
  • Imran Khan, new PM, resolves to solve Kashmir dispute

  • Present casualties

    As of 28 November 2018, a total of 222 militants and 41 security personnel have been killed in operations. A unilateral ceasefire was declared by the Indian Government from 14 May to 17 June where the security forces were asked not to launch new operations during Ramadan
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    Dogra Rule in Kashmir

    The population of Hindus continues to plummet, by the 20th century Kashmir is 94% Muslim
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    British Raj across India

    Britishers rule India
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    King Harisingh's discrimination against muslims

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    Merging territories into India

    INC leaders campaign relentlessly to convince each of the hundreds of princely states to join the Dominion of India instead of opting for Pakistan or independence. Led by the efforts of Vallabhbhai Patel and VP Menon, almost all the states join India. The three main challenges are posed by Hyderabad, Junagadh – and Kashmir. Junagadh is integrated after a diplomatic crisis and a plebiscite; Hyderabad joins the Indian Union after the Indian Army intervenes through Operation Polo.
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    Political developments on either side of the border

    Respective political development on either side of the border. Pakistan’s asymmetrical strategies and India’s apprehensive diplomacy and to-and-fro commitment. Lack of truce from either side. Azad army and Indian army status quo in a Cold War.
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    Soviet-Afghan War

    During this war, guerrilla groups called the Muhajeedeen are formed to fight against the Soviet Army and Afghan government. Later, the Muhajadeen would come to Kashmir during the insurgency period. Their presence linked the US, RUS indirectly to the Kashmir conflict.