Journey 3: American and African American History Over Time

Timeline created by myhealthyglobe
  • War on "Drugs...and Thugs"

    The War on Drugs served as a vehicle for incarcerating African Americans. Drugs such as crack cocaine, which was predominantly used in the black community was cracked down on with harsh punishments. In many cases, a first-time offense was enough to land a long-term or life sentence. The War on Drugs is a large reason why there are more incarcerated black men than there are black men in colleges and universities.
  • Black Lives Matter

    Black Lives Matter is an international activist movement that's primary focus is to campaign against violence and systemic racism towards black people. The Black Lives Matter movement began after the neighborhood watch volunteer who shot and killed a young black man by the name of Trayvon Martin, was acquitted of murdering Martin.
  • The Start of the Awakening and Awareness

    When looking at various domains, such as graduation rates, incarceration rates, unemployment rates, home-owner rates, homelessness rates, and so on, we find that African Americans tend to do worse than their white counter-parts. These consequences are the result of race, and it is possible to argue that we are living in an Apartheid America. The issues are not some group-level deficiency, despite common thought that this is the case. These issues are brought on by race and racism.
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    Slavery

    Although there is ample evidence documenting the presence of black people in the Americas prior to the 1600s, it was not until 1619 that Africans began to arrive to be enslaved. The need for the presence of slaves arose because of the demand for unpaid labor to work plantations and by this time slave trading was very profitable. Like most "immigrants," Africans arrived in boats; however, the conditions of their transport were considerably less hospitable than that of most new arrivals.
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    Civil War

    After decades of tension between Northern and Southern states over slavery rights, the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 caused seven southern states and later four more to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America. Ultimately, the Civil War ended in the Confederates surrender in 1865 and is the most expensive and deadliest war fought on American soil to this day. The war ended the debate about slavery but did not solve the inequality of African Americans within the U.S.
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    Reconstruction

    Following the Civil War, federal troops were placed into the south by President Andrew Johnson to oversee the implementation of the Civil War amendments and the adjustment of bringing newly freed slaves into the fold as citizens. Reconstruction only lasted for 12 years before Rutherford B. Hayes withdrew federal troops and allowed the south to continue the process on its own. This allowed for the Jim Crow Laws to take effect. The north won the war, but in many ways the south won the peace.
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    Jim Crow

    Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures in the late 19th century (during and) after the Reconstruction period. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in 1896 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans in railroad cars.
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    Separate but Equal

    In the infamous Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson, the concept of "separate but equal" was found to be constitutional. This led to segregation gaining an iron grip in the former confederate states. Due to this segregation African American populations dealt with poorer institutions, such as public education and healthcare, and worse infrastructure. It was not until the landmark 1954 case, Brown v. Board of Education, that the concept of "separate but equal" was found unconstitutional.
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    Civil Rights Movement

    The Civil War had abolished slavery but didn't end the discrimination against blacks. The Civil Rights Movement was a fight for social justice so that blacks could gain equal rights under the United States law. This struggle for equality lasted decades but primarily took place during the 1950s and 1960s.