Japanese Aggression

  • Commodore Matthew Perry Invades Japan

    President Millard Fillmore decides to end Japan's isolation. He intended to shock Japan into submission with a massive display of American military force. Perry arrives to Shogun with steam ships and demands meeting with the highest-ranking officials in Japan. The terrified Tokugawa aristocracy acknowledged the superiority of the American military.
    *** Opens Japan for trade with the world
  • Rebel Victory

    After Perry, the Tokugawa decided to watch and wait instead of starting a war with the western powers as their people desired. Rebel clans forge alliances to overthrow the Tokugawa due to their lack of action. The rebels achieved victory in the name of the Meiji emperor and started a revolution to transform into a powerful Japan. The emperor becomes only a symbol.
  • Meiji Restoration

    Under Emperor Meiji, Japan flourishes scientifically, economically, and militarily. Japan creates factories for military production. They also develop the national conscript army.
    *** Japan modernizes, becomes a world power
  • Japan captures Pyongyang

    During a war between Korea, Chine, and Japan, Japan's newly improved military captures Pyongyang and crushes China's northern fleet at sea. The Qing (Chinese) government is forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki. meaning that China has to pay Japan a great deal of money and cede some of its ports.
  • A Growing Nation

    By 1904, the nation had doubles the size of its army and gain self-sufficiency in the production of armaments. Japan is now truely a power and the people are happy with their success.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    This war is a quick victory for Japan. They recapture Port Arthur in the Liaodong Peninsula. They also have a naval victory at Tsushima and gained half of the Sakhalin Islands as well as a commercial supremacy in Machuria.
    *** Raises spirits to an all time high
  • Golden Era

    Modernization earns the country military prestige and economic prosperity. WWI creates a demand for Japanese steel, iron, trade, and textiles, leaving their economy booming.
  • Fall of Japan's Golden Era

    The end of WWI meant the end of the demand for military products from Japan- this leaves many out of work. The stock market crash of 1929 greatly reduces the US's purchasing of silk which hinders the economy.In addition, China boycotts Japanese goods due to their outrage for the Treaty of Versailles.
    *** Inflation soars along with labor stikes, and an earthquake in 1923 which further hurts Japan
  • Washington Naval Conference

    The five naval powers (US, Great Britain, France, Japan, and Italy) agree to reduce naval strength. This demonstrates diplomacy
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    64 countries sign the treaty by 1933, agreeing to outlaw war with the exception of self defense. This fails quickly due to many countries breaking it and the lack of consequences for those who did break it.
  • Growing Population

    Japan struggles to feed its population of 65 million. They are relying heavily on food imports, but with little money, this soon becomes a problem. Some begin to urge Japan to conquer new territory to ward off mass starvation. China becomes Japan's manifest destiny but there will have to be a war to make this dream come true.
  • Invasion of Manchuria

    The first place Japan successfully expands to is Korea in 1910. They build up their influence and in 1931, attack Manchuria. Japan (keeping in mind the Kellog-Briand Pact) says that they are not declaring war but action in self defense. The League of Nations condems this action, so Japan withdrawls.
  • Japan attacks Shanghai

    At this time, China was enduring a civil war over its leader. For this reason, Japan saw the country as weak and felt it was an oppertune time to invade. They felt they would claim the entire country in just three days. However, this fails to happen. Japan takes over 3 months of bloody battle to capture just one city.
  • Full Scale War with China

    An incident in which Japanese soldiers die on the Marco Pollo Bridge allows Japan to wage full war on China. This is know as the Second Sino-Japanese War are carries into WWII.
  • The Rape of Nanking

    After their slow capture of Shanghai, Japan wants revenge. They brutally attack Nanking which falls in 4 days even though the Chinese greatly outnumbered China. This episode was a tragedy. The 90,000 Chinese soldiers that surrendered were tortured by the Japanese. Over 300,000 are killed and 20,000+ are rapped.
  • Tripartite Pact

    In 1940, there was a creation of a loose alliance between Japan, Germany, and Italy (Axis Powers). It was designed to last for 10 years to recognize each other as Fascist countries. This caused the US not wanting to attack because the powers are now alligned and can attack the US from both sides-- when in reality the US is prepared for this. They are able to share resources and technology.
  • Japan invades French Indochina

    France has been taken over by Germany in WWII, making it an easy target to be captured. There are pre-existing factories and such for Japan to use which is always a target of theirs. Japan is also trying to move further south to get to rich oil mines. For this, the United States puts a trade embargo on Japan for oil meaning that they could no longer purchase oil for the US.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Hideki Tojo, the Prime Minister of Japan, puts together a diplomatic envoy and sends them to Washington to create a smoke screen with the US. At the same time, Tojo orders his men to plan an attack on Pearl Harbor to show the strength of the Japanese military. Admiral Yuma Moto leads the attack.