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Japanese militarism from 1890 to 1941.

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    The rise of Japanese Militarism

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    The Meiji Era (1850-1912)

    The Meiji Period brought about a huge change in Japan. After Centuries of Isolation, Japan opens up to the west. industrialisation, centralisation, mass education and military conscription produced a shift in popular allegiances. Feudal loyalties were replaced by loyalty to the state. The emperor was seen as a more important figure and perhaps nationalism is therefore increased too
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    First Sino Japanese War

    This was the first of the 2 Sino Japanese wars, where the strength of the Japanese Army and the weakness of the Chinese Empire was demonstrated to the World.
    The final result was a Japanese victory after the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the independence of Korea was recognised, and Japan was given numerous priviledges and trading rights in China. China’s defeat even encouraged the Western powers to make further demands of the Chinese government.
  • First Anglo-Japanese Alliance

    First Anglo-Japanese Alliance
    This alliance was signed in London to strengthen mutual support in their territorial interests of China and Korea. It was agreed by both parties to safeguard against russian expansionism in the far East. However, once the World war ended, Russia was no longer viewed as an Eastern threat , and since Britain wanted closer ties to the USA, which viewed Japan as its pacific rival, thus the alliance was officially terminated in 1923.
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    Russo- Japanese War

    The Russo - Japanese War was a war fought over expansionist ambitions to capture China and Korea. Japan's victory was pivotal for the boost of nationalism and morale of the nation. Its citizens finally believed that it could challange and defeat a western nation, thus forming the start of the rise of Japanese militarism and support.
  • Japan annexes Korea!

    Japan annexes Korea!
    The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910 formally obligated Korea to be part of Japan, which commentators thought would 'assimilate really well' into the Empire. Korea was inside Japan's sphere of interest due to its availability of resources and manpower, which would augment the strength of the Empire. It expired officially at June 22, 1965 but Japanese influence was nullified after it surrendered to the Allies.
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    The taisho Era

    This was a period in Japanese History where a more liberal approach to Japanese politics ensued. The distribution of Political power was more balanced in a way where the national Diet and democratic parties had more influence, rather than only the traditional old oligarchic group of elder statesmen. The Showa era of unrelenting militarism ensued as emperor taisho died, where Hirohito was then enthroned.
  • The twenty one Demands

    The twenty one Demands
    This was a set of demands made by the Japanese people during the First World war for the chinese governemnt, which was very weak and volatile at the time. The chinese reluctantly accepted the demands, which mostly heightened Territorial 'ascendancy' or control over China, knowing that failure to do so would risk a war with Japan.
  • Washington Conference

    Washington Conference
    Also called the Washington Disarmament Conference, it involved nine nations and was not organised under the auspices of the League. It called for the countries to limit and disarm their navies, and was perhaps the first Disarmament conference in history Japan was offended by being asked to accept a lesser ratio under the terms of a pact made in the conference, A compromise was reached as other countries disarmed to the same extent in other ways. The US was not to fortify their pacific bases.
  • Hirohito ascends to the Throne

    Hirohito ascends to the Throne
    Emperor Hirohito reigned into the Chrysanthemum throne on this day. He became the official spiritual Symbol of Japan, a descendant of the Shinto sun goddess Amaterasu.
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    Manchurian Incident

    The manchurian Incident was perhaps the first major Incident for the League of Nations, and unfortunately the first time where the League's structural weaknesses were exposed.
    Originally, Japanese troops blew up a part of the Manchurian railway. Although the explosion was not significant, the Japanese officials then blamed Chinese bandits and used this as an excuse to invade Manchuria. As the Manchurian incident unfolded, the League sent Investigators but effectively achieved no compromise.
  • Manchukuo Puppet State established

    Manchukuo Puppet State established
    This day marks the signing of the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, which signified the recognition by Japan of this puppet state. The treaty allowed Japanese troops to militarise the state, and the government to be established. This was possible mainly due to the successful invasion of Manchuria after its incident.

    "GENEVA, Feb. 24, 1933 (UP) - The Japanese delegation, defying world opinion, withdrew from the League of Nations Assembly today after the assembly had adopted a report blaming Japan for events in Manchuria." - UPI Archives Japan leaving the League meant that it did not have to comply with any of the impositions. It could carry on with its expansionist aims full speed ahead. "We are not coming back," Matsuoka said simply as he left the hall. He was the Minister of foreign Affairs for Japan.
  • Start of 2nd Sino Japanese War

    Start of 2nd Sino Japanese War
    This was when a full scale invasion of China happened, and major cities such as Nanking, Beijing and Shanghai were overruled. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident sparked the start of the war, where Japanese forces fought the Chinese in the Marco Polo bridge and another railway bridge, after months of heightened military tension between the two nations. It ended on September 9 1945, shortly after Japan surrendered to the allies.
  • Rape of Nanking

    Rape of Nanking
    This atrocious event lasted approximately one month, where the Japanese commited mass murder and rape to the residents of Nanking. There were numerous stories of the heinous acts experienced by the Chinese. There was even a competition for Japanese soldiers to kill 100 chinese people, where the first person to achieve such a 'feat' would win.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbour

    Attack on Pearl Harbour
    " A date which will live in Infamy" - as Roosevelt famously said in his speech. On this day, over 300 planes were launched from Japanese aircraft carriers and attacked the harbour. They sunk many ships integral to the US navy; 2 whole battleships were sunk, several others were damaged. In fact, 2403 people were killed. On the next day, the United States formally declared war against Japan. Many historians believe that this date was the starting point of the pacific war.