Chiang kai shek

Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945

  • Japan Invades Manchuria

    Excuse of the Mukden Incident
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    Ongoing fighting between Japanese & Chinese Forces

  • Anti-Comintern Pact: Germany and Japan

    With Germany and Japan working together, Stalin wanted to prevent two front war of Japan possibly invading Siberia. This lead to his further support of China against Japanese aggression.
  • Xian Incident Leads to 2nd United Front

    KMT and CCP join forces to oppose the Japanese
  • Red (PLA) Army Numbers

    Had only 40,000 troops.
  • Japan Attacks Beiping (Marco Polo Bridge)

    Japanese Imperial Army easily defeated KMT forces also taking Tianjin.
  • Battle of Shanghai

    Japan which had modernized its armed forces was too dominant in training, supplies and technology for the Chinese forces. KMT forces were the better trained (by German advisors) of the KMT army as Chiang Kai-Shek wished to show the West that China could fight Japan and deserved further of their support. The Battle of Shanghai lasted 3 months. The KMT forces then moved westward eventually setting up their base in Chungking as they were to lose their capital of Nanjing.
  • Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

    Stalin wanting to keep China supported against the Japanese to keep Japanese leadership from attacking the Soviet Union. Provided approximately $250 in credits and loans.
  • Nanking Massacre

    Historians estimate up to 300,000 Chinese were mass murdered. Increased already strong nationalistic and anti-foreign beliefs of Chinese going back to 19th century.
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    China Foreign Assistance

    -Soviet Union extended credit for miltary aid of $250 million
    -US, UK, FR granted $263 million in aid
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    Red Army Tactics

    -only attack when have numerical advantage
    -use hit and run tactic
    -not attack cities. Attack supply lines.
    -win hearts and minds of peasants through Land Reform and Mao's 8 Rules for Conduct, revolution leading to unified China
    -Red Army infilitrated countryside behind Japanese lines to bring peasants into associations and into the revolution
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    CCP #s in party and Red Army Increasing

  • New Fourth Army Incident

    Skirmish between the KMT-CCP forces. Demonstrated the lack of conviction on both sides for fighting together in the Second United Front.
  • Germany Invades USSR

    Operation Barbarossa
    -Soviet Union then limited in supporting Chinese
  • Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor

    American resources and ability to support China severly dampened by their entrance into war with Japan.
  • Air Supplies fr US over the "Hump"

    Creation of China National Aviation Corporation to airlift supplies from India into China for use agsinst the Japanes.
  • Japan Controls Burna-Cuts Supply Line to China

    Japan defeated the British, Indian, Burmese and Chinese defenders. China now almost completed blockaded of supplies from the West. The "Burna Road' now completely cut off for supplying Chinese forces.
  • Cairo Conference- Increased status of Chaing Kai-shek

    Chruchhill, Roosevelt and Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo to discuss strategies. Chiang elevated in stature by being included in this meeting. Another case of needing to ask "how could the KMT eventually lose with so much Western support?"
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    Ichigo Campaign by Japanese

    A series of battles where the Japanese fought the KMT moving south from Beijing to Liuzhou (near Japanese held Indo-China). The ease in which the Japanese cut through the KMT forces showed the weakness (lack of discipline, poor training, low morale) of the Nationalist forces even though Japan's military was overextended in the Pacific.
  • Bombing of Hiroshima

    Chiang Kai-shek had counted on the US sending troops to China to set up a staging area from which to invade Japan. He hoped the Americans would then support the KMT in case of civil war with the CCP.
  • USSR Invades Manchuria Attacking the Japanese

    Fulfilling its committment made at the Yalta Conference, the USSR decisively defeats Japanese forces in Manchuria.
  • Red (PLA) Army Numbers

    Had roughly 900,000 troops. This demonstrates dramatic growth in size of army since low point of 1936-37. One needs to think about the policies and actions of CCP leadership to bring in so many peasant farmers to the Red Army.
  • Japan Formally Surrenders in China

    The Soviet Army accepts their surrender. The Soviet Army dismantles many factories in Manchuria to take them back to the USSR. They do work to hand over surrendered Japanese weapons to the CCP Red Army.