Ism's and Revolutions-19th century

  • The Sorrows of the Young Werther by Goethe

    The Sorrows of the Young Werther by Goethe
    It was one of the most important novels in the Sturm und Drang period in German literature and influenced the later Romantic movement.
  • Essay on the Principles of Population by Malthus

    Essay on the Principles of Population by Malthus
    The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.
  • Reflections on the Revolutions in France

    Reflections on the Revolutions in France
    To show that the French Revolution changed too fast. The revolution must change through adaptation, not violent revolution, humans act on passions, and took away too many traditions.
  • Robert Owen opened New Lanark

    Robert Owen opened New Lanark
    It became a factory community, higher wages were given, schools were created and conditions improved
  • Britain's act of union

    Britain's act of union
    The Acts of Union 1800 were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
  • Alexander I reigned in Russia

    Alexander I reigned in Russia
    Alexander I was the Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825, Alexander was the first king of Congress Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825
  • Flora Tristan published Worker's Union

    Flora Tristan published Worker's Union
    Inequality of sexes was because of inequality of ownership of property, while most calls for women's equality were ignored they laid the foundation for future movements.
  • Britain's corn laws

    Britain's corn laws
    The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain enforced in the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1846, They were designed to keep grain prices high to favor domestic producers, and represented British mercantilism.
  • Louis XVIII reigned in France

    Louis XVIII reigned in France
    Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
  • Bourbon Restoration

    Bourbon Restoration
    The bourbons were restored in France, Spain, and Italy, they did this to restore the rightful monarchs.
  • Congress of vienna

    Congress of vienna
    Created to return to "old" Europe, stop liberalism and nationalism, and establish a wave of lasting peace in Europe.
  • Concert of Europe created

    Concert of Europe created
    The Concert of Europe was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
  • "Iron Law of Wages" by Ricardo

    "Iron Law of Wages" by Ricardo
    If there is an increase in population then there will be an increase in workers, this would lead to lower wages, lower wages lead to poverty, poverty leads to death which leads to lower population, lower population equals higher wages, higher wages means better living, better living leads to an increase in population, this makes the whole cycle start all over again.
  • Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle

    Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle
    The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, held in the autumn of 1818, was a high-level diplomatic meeting of France and the four allied powers Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia which had defeated it in 1814.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

    Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
    Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    The Peterloo Massacre took place at St Peter's Field, Manchester, Lancashire, England on Monday 16 August 1819 when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of the parliamentary representation
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Carlsbad Decrees
    The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.
  • Congress of Laibach

    Congress of Laibach
    The Congress of Laibach was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives, held in 1821 as part of the Concert of Europe, which was the decided attempt of the Great Powers to settle
  • Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley

    Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley
    It is concerned with the torments of the Greek mythological figure Prometheus, who defies the gods and gives fire to humanity, for which he is subjected to eternal punishment and suffering at the hands of Zeus
  • congress of troppau

    congress of troppau
    The Congress of Troppau was a conference of the Quintuple Alliance to discuss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples of July 1820, and at which the Troppau Protocol was signed on 19 November 1820
  • Greek Independence

    Greek Independence
    The greeks went through many revolts in order to get independence, in the end Europe picked wether the greeks were independent or not.
  • Congress of Verona

    Congress of Verona
    the last of the meetings held by the European powers in accordance with the terms of the Quadruple Alliance between Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a doctrine stating that if there as any aggression presented the U.S would match that aggression and see it as an act of violence.
  • Charles X reigned in France

    Charles X reigned in France
    Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life, he was known as the Count of Artois. An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning King Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile.
  • Nicholas I reigned in Russia

    Nicholas I reigned in Russia
    Nicholas I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    The Decembrist revolt took place in Imperial Russia on December 26, 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
  • Louis-Philippe reigned in France

    Louis-Philippe reigned in France
    Louis Philippe was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. As Duke of Chartres, he distinguished himself commanding troops during the Revolutionary Wars but broke with the Republic over its decision to execute King Louis XVI.
  • First Belgian Revolution

    First Belgian Revolution
    The Belgian Revolution was the conflict that led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
  • Louis Napoleon comes to power

    Louis Napoleon comes to power
    Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first President of France from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch from 1852 to 1870.
  • July Revolution

    July Revolution
    The revolution was precipitated by Charles X's publication of restrictive ordinances contrary to the spirit of the Charter of 1814
  • Second French Revolution

    Second French Revolution
    The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch
  • Young Italy created

    Young Italy created
    The movement's goal was to create a united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states and in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire.
  • Britain's Reform Bill of 1832

    Britain's Reform Bill of 1832
    The Representation of the People Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales
  • The Zollverein created

    The Zollverein created
    The Zollverein, or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
  • Young Germany created

    Young Germany created
    This was an answer to the Diet of German Confederation.
  • The people's charter

    The people's charter
    Chartism was a working-class male suffrage movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
  • Frederick William IV reigned in Prussia

    Frederick William IV reigned in Prussia
    Frederick William IV, the eldest son, and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia reigned as King of Prussia from 7 June 1840 to his death
  • Irish Potato Famine

    Irish Potato Famine
    The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period of mass starvation and disease in Ireland from 1845 to 1849
  • The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto
    This had little to no impact on the revolutions of 48, however, it did become one of the most influential political works in history.
  • Second Belgian Revolution

    Second Belgian Revolution
    Belgian finally gained independence after several revolts and revolutions.
  • Revolution in Italy

    Revolution in Italy
    Italian unification, also known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century
  • Frankfurt assembly

    Frankfurt assembly
    The Frankfurt Parliament was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848
  • June Days

    June Days
    It was in response to plans to close the National Workshops, created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed, albeit with pay just enough to survive
  • On Liberty by Mill

    On Liberty by Mill
    On Liberty is a philosophical essay by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill. Published in 1859, it applies Mill's ethical system of utilitarianism to society and state. Mill suggests standards for the relationship between authority and liberty.
  • Das Kapital

    Das Kapital
    A Critique of Political Economy is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics, and politics by Karl Marx.
  • Third French Revolution

    Third French Revolution
    The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870