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International trade regulation from GATT to the WTO

By Marjoss
  • 1944

    After the Second World War the World Bank and two other institutions began with the economic reconstruction of the central countries.
  • 1946

    To help accelerate the processes, the United Nations (UN) Economic and Social Council was created to promote the convening of an International Conference on Trade and Employment
  • 1947

    GATT of 94, which is in fact the GATT signed in 1947 (known as GATT of 47) with all the modifications incorporated during these years, plus all the agreements that affect the merchandise trade of the Uruguay Round
  • 1948

    In August 1948 in Geneva, in which 17 countries intervened, to develop the foundations of an International Trade Organization (ICO), which was drafted the so-called "Charter of Havana", constituent agreement of the OIC . This organization was mandated to liberalize trade and promote reconstruction and economic development.
  • 1950

    China was a founding member of the GATT, although the civil war that followed subsequently motivated that in 1950 the previous government refugee in Taiwan will communicate that China withdrew from the Agreement tariffs on American products will be reduced.
  • 1950

    In 1950 the Government of the United States announced that it would not ask Congress to ratify the Havana Charter, which practically meant the death of the OIC
  • 1955

    The United States requested, in 1955, an exception to the Agreement that he admitted his "Agricultural Adjustment Act".
  • 1955

    In 1955 the last attempt was made for the GATT to assume the competence.
  • 1961

    In 1961, was born the Liberalization Code of Capital Movements and the Liberalization of Transactions Code
  • 1962

    In 1962 signified an important precedent year because it laid the groundwork for other countries to justify political domestic agricultural support for prices, mainly the Community European Economic Community with its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) established.
  • 1962

    In 1962 the Agreement on Textile Trade was renewed, This was proposed by the developed countries.
  • 1964

    In 1964 the institutionalization of consultations on agricultural trade and allowed it to be could discuss these matters and negotiate in their some agreements on agricultural products
  • 1967

    In 1967, the World Intellectual Property Organization was created (WIPO) to multilaterally administer rights-of-way agreements intellectual piety, including the Paris and Berne Conventions. WIPO is since 1974 a specialized agency of the United Nations.
  • 1970

    The economic crises of the 1970s and early 1980s because they led to a sharp increase in trade protectionism.
  • 1973

    In 1973, an agreement of a broader nature known as the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) was negotiated in the GATT.
  • 1974

    January 1974 the Multifibre Agreement (MFA) was started.
  • 1976

    In 1976, the Declaration on National Treatment was signed to favor the commitment of national treatment to foreign companies and establish certain the rules of conduct that these companies must observe in the country of destination no (the Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises).
  • 1980

    The incorporation of a large number of developing countries into the economic and trade liberalization principles in response to the external debt crisis of the 1980s. At the same time, this incorporation was favored by the fall of the centralized planning regimes, whose process has contributed to the construction of an increasingly universal consensus in favor of the market economy
  • 1980

    The percentage of international trade in services is significantly lower than that of merchandise trade and it has been impossible to trade some services. These limitations have been eliminated and the growth rate of trade in services in the period 1980-93 has been 7, 7% versus 4.9% in merchandise trade.
  • 1980

    The process of deregulation and economic liberalization in the advanced countries, which began in the 1980s and has continued in the 1990s, with a clearer and stronger commitment in favor of market freedom.
  • 1984

    In 1984, the United States filed a claim against the requirements included in the foreign investment law of Canada, known as the FIRA case.
  • 1986

    In the Declaration of Punta del Este of September 1986, the objectives of the negotiations on property rights intellectual property (IPR) that affected trade.
  • 1990

    In 1990, international trade in agriculture and textiles grew by 30%, which indicated its importance in the negotiations.
  • 1994

    In the signing of the Final Act in Marrakech on April 1994, its constitution was approved and the WTO entered into force on 1st January 1995
  • 1995

    The Multifibre Agreement (MFA) was extended several times until the agreement reached in the Uruguay Round on January 1, 1995.
  • 1996

    In June 1996, negotiations in shipping were definitively halted. These focused on: the liberalization of maritime transport and ancillary services, and the non-discriminatory access and use of ports and their services.
  • 1997

    In December 1997, an agreement was reached that entered into force in March 1999. In this, 70 countries improved their initial offers from a total of 104 signatories.
  • 1998

    In 1998 work began to modify the legislation, and a moratorium was agreed on the application of tariffs to electronic transactions that affect merchandise.
  • 1998

    in January 1998, the access of suppliers from third countries to public telecommunications networks and their use without discrimination and on reasonable terms is regulated. It also includes a decision to favor future negotiations in basic telecommunications and refer to voice telephony, long distance and local telephone services, data transmission, mobile telephony, satellite services, etc.
  • 1999

    The GATS also stipulates that five years after its entry into force, new negotiations will be initiated to expand liberalization in trade in services. As in the trade of agricultural products, services were one of the topics on the Millennium Round agenda, but when their convocation failed, they proceeded, in compliance with the provisions of the Agreement, to convene negotiations on February 25, 2000. Specific
  • 2000

    China is with Russia one of the two great countries that still they are not members of the WTO. During the year 2000, negotiations for this countries enters the Organization have made considerable progress in conclude bilateral negotiations with its two main partners trade, the United States and the European Union.
  • 2001

    China could be formally accepted as a member of the WTO at the IV Ministerial Conference convened for the month of November, 2001, thus ending a process of negotiations that has lasted fifty years In 1986, the Multifibre Agreement (MFA) was also extended to vegetable fiber products, mixtures containing silk and other fibers such as jute.
  • 2002

    The measures applied by the European Union in products subject to quotas; This last measure meant that countries were subject to a double protection system. These complaints led to a group of 23 developing countries, at the Seattle conference, to modify the agreement signed in Uruguay with the aim of accelerating liberalization and, thus, counteracting the limited effects on their exports of those applied. Therefore they propose a 50% liberalization of the quotas in the year 2002
  • 2005

    Specific safeguard clause. United States will keep for 12 years from accession a specific regulation that only will apply to China when the increase in imports to this country causes damage to American companies. This clause will also apply to the textile industry, even if quotas disappear in 2005.