Flag pins mexico colombia

INTA LatAm Midterm

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    Mexico- Presidency of José López Portillo

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    Presidency of Julio César Turbay Ayala

  • Medellin cartel rises to power

    The Medellin cartel rises to power. The alliance includes the Ochoa family, Pablo Escobar, Carolos Lehder and Jose Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha. The drug kingpins work together to manufacture, transport and market cocaine. The United States and Colombia ratify a bilateral extradition treaty.
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    Presidency of Víctor Mosquera Chaux

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    Restored Presidency of Julio César Turbay Ayala

  • Guerrilla Amnesty

    President Betancur grants guerrillas amnesty and frees political prisoners.
  • Panama allows Colombia to ship cocaine through it country

    Panamanian leader Gen. Manuel Noriega allows Pablo Escobar to ship cocaine through Panama. In the United States, Vice-President George H.W. Bush combines agents from multiple agencies and military branches to form the South Florida Drug Task Force, Miami being the main entry point at the time.
  • Escobar elected to the Colombian congress

    Pablo Escobar is elected to the Colombian congress; he gained support by building low-income housing, doling out money in Medellin slums and campaigning with Catholic priests. He's driven out of Congress the following year by Colombia's minister of justice.
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    Presidency of Belisario Betancur Cuartas

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    Mexico- Presidency of Miguel de la Madrid

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    Mexican border arises as cocaine trafficking spot

    Because of the South Florida Drug Task Force's work, cocaine trafficking slowly changes transport routes. The Mexican border becomes the major point of entry for cocaine headed into the United States.
  • Justice Minister assasinated

    The justice minister is assassinated, which sparks the campaign against drug traffickers to step up.
  • Patriotic Union Party formed

    M-19 guerrillas force their way into the Palace of Justice; Patriotic Union Party (UP) founded.
  • Colombian drug traffickers extradited to US

    Colombia extradites drug traffickers to the United States for the first time. U.S. officials discover that the Medellin cartel has a "hit list" that includes embassy members, their families, U.S. businessmen and journalists.
  • Barco Vargas wins by large margin

    President Barco Vargas wins presidential elections by record margin.
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    Presidency of Virgilio Barco Vargas

  • Reagan signs the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986

    Reagan signs the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, which appropriates $1.7 billion to fight the drug war. The bill also creates mandatory minimum penalties for drug offenses.
  • President Bush demands new Mexican president perform

    Carlos Salinas de Gortari is elected president of Mexico, and President-elect George H.W. Bush tells him he must demonstrate to the U.S. Congress that he is cooperating in the drug war. This process is called certification.
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    Mexico- Presidency of Carlos Salinas de Gortari

  • M-19 becomes a legal party

    M-19 becomes legal party after reaching peace agreement with government.
    Cesar Gaviria elected on anti-drug platform.
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    Presidency of César Gaviria Trujillo

  • Berlin Wall falls and USSR declines

  • Human Rights issues arise

    New constitution legalises divorce, prohibits extradition of Colombians wanted for trial in other countries and guarantees indigenous peoples' democratic rights.
  • Colombia bans extradition and Escobar surrenders

    The Colombian assembly votes to ban extradition in its new constitution. Pablo Escobar surrenders to the Colombian police the same day. He is confined in a private luxury prison, though reports suggest that he travels in and out as he pleases. When Colombian authorities try to move Escobar to another prison in July 1992, he escapes.
  • DEA officers receive regulations in Mexico

    Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari issues regulations for DEA officers in his country. The new rules limit the number of agents in Mexico, deny them diplomatic immunity, prohibit them from carrying weapons, and designate certain cities in which they can live.
  • Pablo Escobar killed

    Escobar, Medellin drug-cartel leader, shot dead while trying to evade arrest.
  • Mexico ratifies NAFTA

    Mexican parliament ratifies the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the US and Canada.

    President Clinton signs the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which increases the amount of trade and traffic across the U.S.-Mexican border. This makes it more difficult for U.S. Customs to find narcotics moving across the border.
  • EZLN reconized and given rights

    A guerrilla rebellion in Chiapas by the Zapatista National Liberation Army is brutally suppressed by government troops. The rebels oppose Nafta and want greater recognition for Indian rights. The government recognises the Zapatista National Liberation Front (EZLN).
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    Presidency of Ernesto Samper Pizano

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    Mexico- Presidency of Ernesto Zedillo

  • New president is kicked out for accusations

    President Samper Pizano (Liberal) elected president and is subsequently charged and cleared of receiving drug-cartel money for his election campaign.
  • Mexico- PRI falters

    The PRI suffers heavy losses in elections and loses its overall majority in the lower house of parliament for the first time since 1929.
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    Presidency of Carlos Lemos Simmonds

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    Presidency of Ernesto Samper Pizano

  • New president desires peace

    President Pastrana Arango - a Conservative - elected president, begins peace talks with guerrillas.
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    Presidency of Andrés Pastrana Arango

  • Farc given safe haven

    Pastrana grants Farc a safe haven to help move peace talks along.
  • Peace talks not so effectice

    Inconsistent peace talks are launched as Pastrana and Farc leader Manuel "Sureshot" Marulanda meet.
  • Plan Colombia receives US support

    Pastrana's "Plan Colombia" wins almost US $1 billion in mainly military aid from the US to fight drug-trafficking and rebels who profit and protect the trade.
  • Peace talks stopped

    Government freezes peace talks as more accusations arise.
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    Mexico- Presidency of Vicente Fox

  • Peace talks make progress

    The Farc return to peace talks after meeting between "Sureshot" and Pastrana. Pastrana extends demilitarized area for eight months.
  • Zapatista guerrillas march for their rights

    Zapatista guerrillas, led by Subcomandante Marcos, stage their 'Zapatour', a march from Chiapas to Mexico City to highlight their demands.
  • Farc accused of misusing peace haven

    Farc accused of using safe haven to rearm, prepare attacks and conduct drug trade.
  • Attack on the US

    Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Wadhington, D.C.
  • San Francisco agreement signed

    Government, Farc sign San Francisco agreement, committing themselves to negotiate ceasefire.
  • Ceasefire agreed upon

    Pastrana accepts Farc ceasefire timetable and extends safe haven until April.
  • Farc pushes too far and Pastrana acts

    Pastrana breaks off three years of tortuous peace talks with Farc rebels, says hijacking of aircraft hours earlier is final straw. He orders rebels out of demilitarised zone. Government declares war zone in south after rebels step up attacks.
  • Uribe focuses on fighting back

    Independent candidate Alvaro Uribe wins a first-round presidential election victory, promises to crack down hard on rebel groups.
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    Presidency of Álvaro Uribe Vélez

  • American hostages taken over drug trafficking

    In February, three Americans — contracted by the Pentagon to help with Colombia's anti-drug effort — are taken hostage by guerrilla fighters after their surveillance plane crashes. In April, the Illicit Drug Anti-Proliferation Act is enacted, which targets ecstasy, predatory drugs and methamphetamine.
  • Government does not support Uribe's plans

    14 out of 15 of President Uribe's planned austerity measures and political reforms rejected by voters in referendum. Three ministers, national police chief resign.
  • AUC disarms

    Fighters from right-wing United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC) begin to disarm.
  • Famed guerilla leader imprisoned

    Farc's Ricardo Palmera, the most senior Colombian guerrilla ever captured, is jailed for 35 years.
  • AUC begins peace talks with government

    Right-wing AUC and government begin peace talks. AUC leaders address Congress.
  • Farc leader on Venezuelan soil causes rift

    Bitter 15-day dispute with Venezuela over the capture of a Farc leader on Venezuelan soil. The affair is resolved at talks in Caracas in February.
  • Consequences lessed for rebels who surender

    New law offers reduced jail terms and protection from extradition for paramilitaries who turn in their arms. Rights groups say the legislation is too lenient.
  • ELN wants to talk peace

    Exploratory peace talks with the second biggest left-wing rebel group, the National Liberation Army (ELN), begin in Cuba.
  • Free trade between Colombia and US

    Colombia and the US agree on a free trade deal. The agreement awaits ratification in both countries.
  • Uribe gets second term and parliament is on his side

    Parties loyal to President Uribe win an overwhelming victory in parliamentary elections.
  • US plans to build fence along Mexican border

    US President George W Bush signs legislation to build 1,125km (700 miles) of fencing along the US-Mexico border. Mexico condemns plans for the barrier, which is intended to curb illegal immigration.
  • Peace is shaky once more

    Detained paramilitary leaders say they are pulling out of a peace process.
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    Mexico- Presidency of Felipe Calderon

  • Ecuador fights Colombian crop spraying

    Ecuador turns to the Organisation of American States (OAS) for help with its challenge to Colombia's coca crop-spraying program along their common border.
  • Protests by the 100,000

    Hundreds of thousands protest in Bogota against kidnappings and conflict in the country.
  • Chavez wants to talk trading hostages

    In his role as mediator, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agrees to invite rebels for talks on hostage release deal.
  • Chavez withdraws ambassador to Colombia

    Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez withdraws his country's ambassador to Bogota in a row over his role in negotiations between the Colombian government and rebel forces.
  • Farc founder dies

    Farc announces death of its leader and founder, Manuel Marulanda.
  • Things get worse...

    Drug-related killings soar. Murders linked to organised crime leap to almost 1,400 in first five months of year.
  • Paramilitary warlords extradited to US

    Colombia extradites 14 paramilitary warlords to the United States to stand trial on drug trafficking charges.
  • Drug-related violence protested

    Hundreds of thousands join marches throughout Mexico to protest against continuing wave of drugs-related violence.
  • US affected by Mexican activities

    US justice department report says Mexican drug traffickers pose biggest organised crime threat to US.
  • After peace talks, a governor is killed

    Farc rebels kill the governor of the southern state of Caqueta, Luis Francisco Cuellar.
  • US troops use Colombian bases

    Relations with Venezuela deteriorate again after plans to allow US troops to use Colombian military bases as part of a drive to curb drug-trafficking are unveiled.
  • Colombia signs deal to allow US troops in

    Colombia and US sign deal giving the US military access to seven Colombian bases.
  • Mexican border violence on the rise

    Murder rate in Ciudad Juarez on Mexico-US border reaches all-time high amid battles between rival drug cartels.
  • Rebel groups declare intentions of peace

    The Marxist rebel groups - the Farc and the smaller National Liberation Army (ELN) - announce that they intend to stop fighting each other and concentrate on attacking the armed forces.
  • Drug lord shot and killed

    One of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords, Arturo Beltran Leyva, is killed in a shoot-out with state security forces.
  • Venezuela makes peace with Colombia

    Colombia and Venezuela restore diplomatic ties.
  • Mexican president asks US for help

    President Calderon calls on United States to share responsibility in battle against drug trafficking, after murder of three people connected to US consulate in border city of Ciudad Juarez.
  • New president demands release of hostages

    Juan Manuel Santos takes over as president, having won easy victory in run-off election in June. He responds to a Farc offer of talks by insisting that the rebel group must first release all the hostages it still holds.
  • Obama ups the ante on border protection

    US President Barack Obama signs into law a $600m bill to put more agents and equipment along the Mexican border to stem the flow of illegal immigrants.
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    Presidency of Juan Manuel Santos Calderón

  • Wikileaks expose insecurities

    Wikileaks releases US diplomatic cables revealing that the US ambassador questioned the Mexican security forces' ability to tackle organised crime.