Instructional Design

  • Dewey (1916) Critical Thinking

    Dewey (1916) Critical Thinking
    He stated that there was a huge necessity to implement an innovative strategy to enhance the teaching-learning experience, allowing students to work and reflect on their own learning process.
  • Not a single method

    Dewey does not propose a single method; teachers must be albe to adapt themselves to the situations.

  • Van Merriënboer and Dijkstra (1997). 4C/ID model

    Van Merriënboer and Dijkstra (1997). 4C/ID model
    Address the issue of how to teach complex skills (how to solve problems)

    Molenda et al. (1999) proposed this model.
    Analyze the students' characteriestics.
    State the objectives.
    Select the material.
    Utilize the materia.
    Requere students' participation
  • Laurillard (2002) Theories and ICTs

    Laurillard (2002) Theories and ICTs
    The author proposes that there must exist a theory that involves both the ICTs and the learning theories to offer a "conversational framework" in which they allow meaningful learning to take place.
  • Grundling (2002)

    Grundling (2002)
    ID is considered both as a science and art. Not only is based in different learning theories, but also it designs different didactic resources.
  • Driscoll (2005) Constructivism and E-learning.

    Education must be contextualized in order to be meaningful to students. It must involve communicative strategies. The learning environment and task must be relevant to students' lives. And it must promote autonomyl
  • Kanuka (2006)

    Kanuka (2006)
    Kanuka has made a great contribution to the theories of Instructional Design and Techno-Pedagogical Design.
  • Shu and Barab (2008). Descriptive and Prescriptive

    According to the author, the learning theories are descriptive because they explain how learning occurs in humman beings. And the instructional theories are prescriptive since they show to design the educational actions.
  • Wiley (2009) ID and Arts

    Wiley (2009) ID and Arts
    Wiley proposes that ID is influenced by other fields like Arts.
  • ICTs and education

    ICTs and education
    The use of ICTs has become and important tool in the educational field.