History map

Important Eras and Developments

  • Period: Jan 3, 1348 to Jan 3, 1351

    Black Death

    The Black Death was a plague that sewpt through Europe and killed a third of its population. It also upset the feudal system and led to its downfall.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1350 to Jan 1, 1550

    Renaissance

    The Renassaince wa the "rebirth" of Europe's intellectuals, artists, author's etc. It started in modern day Italy and brought about geniuses like Da Vinci and Michelangelo. The Vitruvian Man by Da Vinci
  • Period: Jan 3, 1415 to Jan 3, 1417

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends great Schism

    The Great Schism was a schism when 2 different pope lines tried to be pope.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1450 to

    Exploration

    The British Empire (Minus the 13 colonies) The age of exploration led europe to colonize new worlds such as America. It led to the largest empire in history, the British Empire
  • Jan 4, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople; End of hundred years war

    Fall of Constantinople; End of hundred years war
    Constatninople fell to the Ottomans and became present day Istanbul. The hundred years war also ended during this year with the French winning, assisted by Joan of Arc
  • Jan 4, 1455

    Invention of Printing Press

    Invention of Printing Press
    The Printing Press was an important invention because it enabled easier access to knowledge which was critical for intellectual periods such as the Renessaince.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus encounters America; completion of Reconquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America; completion of Reconquista in Spain
    Christopher columbus, while tring to find a quicker route to india, found the New World. Meanwhile, in Spain the reconquering of lands from the Muslims was complete with the takeover of their last stronghold.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations

    The Protestant Reformations made way for the modern beliefs that splintered a previously Catholic Europe. The catholic Reformation was made in response to the Protestant reformations and began with the council of Trent in 1545 Europe's Religion in 1639
  • Period: Jan 2, 1500 to

    Early Modern Society

    Machiavellis "The Prince"- First analytical delve into Politics This period was characterized by the rapid development of science and secularization. Religion also underwent dynamic change as many new branches of Chrisitanity were being followed.
  • Period: Jan 2, 1500 to

    Price Revolution

    This was a period characterized by a dominant rate of inflation. The exploration and discovery of gold and precious minerals led to inflation in Europe.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Luther posts 95 theses

    Luther posts 95 theses
    Martin Luther, upset by the corruption of the Catholic church, posts 95 theses on the evils of the church. This leads to the advent of Protestantism.
  • Jan 4, 1519

    Cortez conquers Aztecs

    Cortez conquers Aztecs
    Herna Cortez of Spain conquers the Aztec empire by killing their leader, Moteczuma
  • Period: Jan 1, 1524 to

    Religous Wars

    These wars followed the onset of the Protestant reformation and were influenced by the religous vicissitude (SAT word right there :) A portrayal of the 30 Years War, One of the major religous wars
  • Nov 4, 1534

    Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church

    Act of Supremacy in England creates Anglican Church
    The Act of Supremacy was passed, which defined Henry VII and the following monarchs of England, to be the supreme religous head of England.
  • Jan 4, 1536

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva

    Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva
    John Calvin opened up a strict interpretation of the Protestant faith and introduced a new church system and predestination.
  • Period: Jan 2, 1543 to

    Scientific Revolution

    Isaac Newton- One of the greatest thinkers of this era The scientific revolution was a period in which many great thinkers, scientists and intellectuak societies emerged in Europe. It saw the advent of modern scientific principles and theories.
  • Jan 4, 1543

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory
    Copernicus, on the verge of death, published his book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" which presented his radical new heliocentric theory.
  • Dec 13, 1545

    Council of Trent opens

    Council of Trent opens
    The council of Trent opened and was an integral part of the counter-refromation. It allowed for reform of the Catholic chuch.
  • Period: Jan 2, 1550 to

    Dutch Commercial Dominance

    The Dutch Empire and its West/East Companies established dominance over global trade during this period. Dutch East India Company
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg ends religous war in Germany; Charles V abdicates

    Peace of Augsburg ends religous war in Germany; Charles V abdicates
    The Peace of Augsburg ended the wars in Germany and allowed for the permanent division of Christendom
  • Period: Jan 2, 1560 to

    Age of Crisis

    During this period inflation rose, Spain's silver-supported economy slowed down and famine took a toll on the rapidly increasing population of Europe.
  • Period: Jan 2, 1580 to

    Witchcraft Scare

    During this period, the fear of witches erupted into massive hysteria and witch hunts. Old, single women were usually targeted and executed. A "Witch" being executed
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    The Spanish Armada is defeated by England and ensured England's rise as a world class power.
  • Edict of Nantes ends religous wars in France

    Edict of Nantes ends religous wars in France
    The Edict of Nates gave the Huguenots(Calvinists) rights of toleration of their religion in a Cactholic France, thereby ending the conflict between the 2 parties
  • Period: to

    Baroque Art

    The Descent by Carravagio Baroque art was a dramatic art style that became popular in the 17th century.It emphasized majesty and grandeur and showed energy through itself.
  • Period: to

    Commercial Revolution

    A moneylender The commercial revolution came about with the new commercial empires trying to create international trade networks. As a result, new economic systems came about as well as new banking systems.
  • Dutch East India Company

    Dutch East India Company
    The Dutch East India company was formed to conduct business in Asia for the Netherlands
  • Period: to

    Conflict between Parliament and King in England

    In this period, the Tudor Family ruled England. They, however, excluded the parliament from many acts and this led to a coup d'etat against Charles i and this led to a civil war. Cromwell than took over and became the only dictator of England. The monarchy was then restored with the advent of Charles II which led to the accesion of James II to the throne and the Glorious Revolution.
  • Stuart Monarchy reigns in England

    Stuart Monarchy reigns in England
    The Stuart Monarchy began in England, starting with the rule of James I. This family line would prove to be ousted by Parliament along with the monarchy, but with Charles II would return
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    Age of Louis XIV

    Louis XIV was a ruler of France. He sought to centralize France and eliminate the power of nobility by confining them in his magnificent palace in Versailles. He was an advocate of the divine right of kings.
  • Peace of Westphalia ends 30 Years War

    Peace of Westphalia ends 30 Years War
    Peace of Westphalia allowed for the Dutch Republic to be officialy recognized by Spain
  • Charles I Executed in England

    Charles I Executed in England
    Charles I was executed for treason to the state and Parliament. He limited power of Parliament and even closed the building down. After his execution, Oliver Cromwell ruled England until the Monarchy was reestablished by Charles II
  • Period: to

    Absolutism

    Absolutism refers to a monarchy where the sovereign figure held unchecked power. This claim to unlimited power was defended by the apparent divine right of kings to hold this power. Louis XIV of France was a prime example of this
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    Commercial Wars

    These wars between the English and the Dutch commercial empires stemmed from commercial rivalry. A portrayal of the Wars
  • Period: to

    Rise of Prussia

    Prussia was on the rise in this period and soon became a major power in Europe. Under Frederick II Prussia took Silesia from Austria which set off the 7 years war. With help from its former enemy Russia and England, Prussia keptt its control of Silesia
  • Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

    Newton publishes Principia Mathematica
    Newton published the principia, whch present his 3 laws of motion, universal gravitation and other of Newton's works and discoveries
  • Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia

    Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's reign begins in Russia
    James II is disposed peacefully and replaced by William. Peter the great begins ruling Russia and turns it into a formidable power in Europe.
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    Rise of Russia

    Peter the great</a>THe rise of Russia started with the reign of <a href='http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/fileadmin/historyLearningSite/peter_close2.jpg' > who reorganized his army and created a navy. He aslo reorganized the government. Catherine the great further reformed the government and stifled rebellions from the still-present serfs. russia, now a political power, played a role in the Congress of Vienna to decide the fate of France.
  • Bank of England founded

    Bank of England founded
    The Bank of England was formed to rasie England 1 million pounds for rebuilding of the navy.
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    Agricultural Revolution

    The agricultural revolution in Europe came about from enhanced farming techniques such as fertilization and new inventions such as the hoe and a Seed drill. The Americas also supplied new crops such as maize and potatoes.
  • Peace of Utrecht; Death of Louis XIV

    Peace of Utrecht; Death of Louis XIV
    The Peace of Utrecht was established by the treaties of Utrecht between France, Spain and other European States. Dring this period Loius XIV also died
  • Period: to

    Rococo Art

    Rococo Art emphasized grace and gentle action.It was hihgly secular and was enjoined upon by painters such as Watteau. It was also used in conjunction with Baroque architecture, as evident in the works of the architect Balthasar Neumann.
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    Enlightenment

    During the Enlightenment, the ideas in the Scientific Revolution were popularized, Skepticism came into existence and the 4 major philosophes headed a movement to bring man out of ignorance. Montesquieu, Diderot, Voltaire, Beccaria, Quesnay, Hume and Roussaue advocated freedom of speech and religoin and created the social sciences. This was also a time when intellectuals such as Mary <a href='http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Marywollstone preachedd on the equality of the sexes.
  • War of Austrian Succession

    War of Austrian Succession
    The War began when Prussia invaded and took Silesia/. This war enabled Silesia to become a superpower
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    Industrial Revolution

    THe industrial revolution was a mjor force of change into a machine-dependent Western world. It began in Britain with new machines for textiles such as the power loom. Then the steam engine was created which led to factories and trains.
  • Treaty of Paris ends 7 years war

    Treaty of Paris ends 7 years war
    The treaty of Paris ended the 7 years war with Asutria retaining Silesia.
  • American Revolution; Smith publishes Wealth of Nations

    American Revolution; Smith publishes Wealth of Nations
    The American Revolution begins with the signing of the Declaration of independence. Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations which challenges Mercantilism
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    Rise of the middle Class

    The bourgeois, or the middle class became the largest buying power in Europe. Due to the Industrial Revolution, the middle class found many new roads to wealth and were the entrepeneurs of Europe. The wealthiest members of this class, due to their wealth, had power that was equal to the traditional elite.
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    Age of Revolutions

    This period wa a time of political upheaval that began in North America and continued in France. Both the American and French Revoltion embodied the ideas of the enlightenment and liberty. However both were bloody and cost many casualties. In France, the Monarchy was destroyed and replaced by a government wich was then overthrown by Napolean Bonaparte who reestablished a reformed monarchy.
  • French Revolution Begins

    French Revolution Begins
    The French Revolution against the monarchy began and the3 estate wrested away the power from the monarchy.
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    Feminism

    Feminism was a movement started by intellectuals such as Wollstonecraft in the Enlightnement which continued on through the 20th century. It enjoined equal rights for both sexes and succeeded in improving womens' social status
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    Rise of Nationalism

    In this period, a unified state became the focus of people's loyalty. Countries like France, Italy and Germany tried to unify their states. The large minorities wanted their own nation-states seperate by the ruling countries.
  • Vindication of Rights of Women by Wollstonecraft Released; Starts feminist movement

    Vindication of Rights of Women by Wollstonecraft Released; Starts feminist movement
    Wollstonecraft publishes the first major treatise on the rights of women. She propogates equal rights for men and women.
  • Napolean comes to power in France

    Napolean comes to power in France
    Napolean Bonaparte rose to power during the later stage of the French Revolution and restores a reformed Monarchy and crowns himself emperor.
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    Romanticism

    Romanticism was a reaction to rationalization of nature and the enlightenment. Romantics stressed the use of feeling, intuition and imagination as opposed to reason. This style was expressed in poetry, prose, art and architecture(Gothic). Romanticism was also expressed in music as evident by Beethoven's works
  • Napolean's Abdicaiton; Congress if Vienna

    Napolean's Abdicaiton; Congress if Vienna
    Napolean is abdicated from the throne due to forceful removal by Prussia, Russia and Sweden
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    Rise of Liberalism

    Liberalism was the belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible, in both economy and politics. These beliefs were present in the ideas of Malthus and John Mill.
  • Revolutions of 1848; Communist Manifesto Published

    Revolutions of 1848; Communist Manifesto Published
    These revolutions were a widespread series of rebellions across the countries. The Communist Manifesto was published by Marx and Engels. It became one of the most influential political books in history.
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    Unification and Nation-Building

    In this period of time, Italy, Germany, Canada and the United States(After the Civil War) unified. their own respective countries.
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    Realsim and Materialsim

    Materialsim was the secular belief that everything mental, physical or ideal was the result of a material force. Realsim sought to express the view that the world should be viewed realistically.
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    Second Industrial Revolution

    The second industrial revolution helped create material prosperity and an age of progress. Steel, electricity,chemicals and petrol made way for new inventions and frontiers.
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    Imperialism

    European States carved up most of Africa into colonies and and Asia. China then opened to Western trade.
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    Modern ideas and Science

    Europe during this period, expanded on ideas formed in the enlightenment and created physics and Darwinism and Marxism
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    Rise of Modern Society

    In this era, women pressed for their rights, namely their right to vote. However, on the other side of the spectrum, Jews were being persecuted and in response, Zionism started gaining traction.
  • Crystal Palace exhibition in Britain

    Crystal Palace exhibition in Britain
    The Crystal Palace Exhibition was an exhibition held in a huge building that exhibited England's Grandeur and progress through the industrial revoltion
  • Britain establishes direct rule over India

    Britain establishes direct rule over India
    Britain during this period establsihed direct rule over the province of India.
  • Darwin publishes Origin of the Species

    Darwin publishes Origin of the Species
    Charles Darwin published Origin of Species, which presented the underlying principles of evolution
  • Italy Unified; Russian Serfs Emancipated

    Italy Unified; Russian Serfs Emancipated
    Italy became unified under the House of Savoy. The Russian Sers were finally freed from fuedalism
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    Modern Art

    Modern Art emerged with Post- Impressionism, cubsim and other forms of abstract painting. In music, Debussy linked his music to Impressionism while Grieg composed nationalist pieces for Scotland
  • Unification of Germany; First Commune

    Unification of Germany; First Commune
    Germany became oficially integrated and united.
  • Interpretaion of Dreams by Freud published

    Interpretaion of Dreams by Freud published
    Freud publishes his bestselling book and delves into pyschology as a science.
  • Einstein publishes relativity theory; Russian Revolution of 1905

    Einstein publishes relativity theory; Russian Revolution of 1905
    Einstein, the genius physicist, publishes the relativity theory which is the backbone of modern physics. The Russian Revolution of 1905 led to a limited constitution monarchy.
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    World Wars

    The World Wars were 2 Wars that were the first true Global Wars. They led to increased production and factories but suffered terrible casualties.
  • World War I begins

    World War I begins
    World War I, the first of two global wars begins.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
    The Bolshevik revolution protested the starvation caused by the government by going to St Petersburg and asking for bread
  • Treaty of Versailles ends WW1

    Treaty of Versailles ends WW1
    The treaty ends WW1 with the axis powers being greatly punished economically.
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    Totalitarianism

    In the 1920's the Soviet Union became the first Totalitarian ste. This was followed by Nazi Germany. The totilitarian state aimed to control all aspects of life
  • Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy

    Fascists and Mussolini come to power in Italy
    Mussolini in a coup d'etat takes power along with fascists
  • Great Depression begins

    Great Depression begins
    The Great Depression, the greatest modern economic recession, takes place after a stock market crash
  • Hitler came to power

    Hitler came to power
    Hitler became Lord Chancellor along with his Nazi party.
  • WW2 Starts

    WW2 Starts
    WW2 Starts after Hitler's invasion of Poland
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    Cold Wars

    The Cold Wars were brought about between the US and the USSR due to their underlying differences. However no actual combat ensued and the Cold War was more an arms race
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    European Unity

    After the aftermath of the wars, Europe saw it necessary to be more unified. So new organizations started forming which eventually formed into the EU.
  • WW2 Ends

    WW2 Ends
    WW2 ENds with Hitler's suicicde
  • NATO Formed

    NATO Formed
    NATO was formed with Western European countries in response to threats from the USSR
  • ECSC formed

    ECSC formed
    ECSC formed as a European economic allinace, which leads to the EU
  • Stalin Dies

    Stalin Dies
    Stalin died of a massive heart attack thereby ending his reign of terror.
  • EEC; Sputnik launched

    EEC; Sputnik launched
    The first artificial Earth sattelite was launched
  • Berlin Wall erected

    Berlin Wall erected
    Berlin Wall divides Germany into East and West Germany.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    Fidel Castro, the currrent dictator of Cuba allows USSR to place a missile base in Cuba which threatens America.
  • Second Vatican Council

    Second Vatican Council
    Second Vatican Council takes place at the Holy See
  • Student Revolts;"Prague Spring" Revolts

    Student Revolts;"Prague Spring" Revolts
    A bunch of revolts against communism took place
  • John Paul II elected Pope

    John Paul II elected Pope
    John Paul II is elected Pope and plays a significant role in ending communism
  • USSR invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected Prime Minister of Europe

    USSR invades Afghanistan; Thatcher elected Prime Minister of Europe
    USSr invades Afghanistan to gain access to ports that are usable all year long. Thatcher is elected Prime Minister in Britian
  • Gorbachev comes to power

    Gorbachev comes to power
    Gorbachev came to power and had less communist views than his fellow leaders. His rule averdently led to the breakup of USSR
  • Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism

    Berlin Wall falls and collapse of communism
    Berlin Wall, a symbol of oppression is broken through, thereby reunitng Germany.
  • USSR breaks up; Balkan conflicts in Yugoslavia

    USSR breaks up; Balkan conflicts in Yugoslavia
    The USSR breaks up and Boris Yeltsin becomes the president of the New Russian State. Meanwhile in Yugoslavia, Balkan conflicts start occuring
  • EU formed by Maastrich treaty

    EU formed by Maastrich treaty
    EU is formed between most European countries and introduces the Euro.
  • Euro Currency Introduced

    Euro Currency Introduced
    The Euro currency introduced to all countries in the EU. It eventually becomes part of the second largest economy in the world, after the US dollar
  • Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Terrorist Attacks on the United States
    The Word Trade Center and the Pentagon are targetd by terrorist- hijacked planes. This leads to an uproar in the US and George Bush starts the War on Terror