Vietnam war protest

1960s Timeline Project

  • Period: to

    The Decade That Changed America

  • Vietminh Created

    Vietminh Created
    Vietminh, or League for the Independence of VIetnam was led by communists or others committed to independence. Ho Chi Minh believed America would help them fight for independence from France and their nationalist movement. He would later find out that he was wrong.
  • Eisenhower's Domino Theory

    Eisenhower's Domino Theory
    Eisenhower was elected president in 1953 and believed if Vietnam fell to communism so would other Southeast Asia countries. This spread of communism was called the domino theory. The US sent arms, ammunition, supplies, and money to the French forces. This placed the US on the French and losing side of the war.
  • Rosa Parks Arrested

    Rosa Parks Arrested
    A black woman named Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat on the bus for a white man. Her refusal resulted in her arrest, but this started the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott which successfully ended bus segregation a year later.
  • Secret FBI Program

    Secret FBI Program
    Hoover created the FBI to keep an eye on suspicious groups. Spies posed as supporters in these protest groups so they could report the plans back to the government. These agents spreaded false rumors that Panthers watned to kill SNCC leaders and forged posters. These plots helped collapse SNCC in 1970.
  • SCLC created

    SCLC created
    Representatives from the Montgomery bus boycott and others met in Atlanta, Georgia to from a new group to protest activities against segregation. The group was named Southern Christian Leadership Conference, or SCLC. Martin Luther King Jr. was declared leader. The main goal of this group was to hold mass, non violent action and was a vital component to the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Little Rock Nine's First Day of School

    Little Rock Nine's First Day of School
    Govenor Orval Faubus refused to let blacks into his white only high school, even after integration laws had been passed. He ordered the Arkansas National Guard to keep them out. However, President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort them in. This even shows how strong racism was in parts of the country.
  • Free Speech Movement

    Free Speech Movement
    The Berkeley event sparked the Free Speech movement of the 1960s. Young people everywhere shocked adults because the adults expected them to not question authority. Young people joined hipppie communities as life in counterculture became more popular. Hippies professed peace, love, and harmony in reaction to the antiwar movements.
  • The Election of 1960

    The Election of 1960
    John F Kennedy ran for office as the democratic canidate against Richard Nixon. He won the election due to his sucuessful confidence potrayed through television debates. Unfortunately, JFK did not have a mandate and this forced him to work harder to gain the support to govern.
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion
    The CIA assured Kennedy that this Cuba invasion could not fail but they were wrong. Newspapers reported the invasion one week before it happened, giving away the surprise element they needed. Kennedy canceled additional air coverage for the land invasion and Castro was already prepared. The invasion failed and the incident helped strengthen Fidel Castro's ties to the Soviet Union.
  • Freedom Riders Take Action

    Freedom Riders Take Action
    The supreme court ruled that all bus station facilities be open to all passengers of color but was not strongly enforced. Members of CORE sent Freedom Riders on a bus trip through the south to use restrooms and lunch counters. They knew that they would find oppositon and used this to draw attention to the law so the federal government wouldl begin to enforce it.
  • Kennedy Enters US Into Spacerace

    Kennedy Enters US Into Spacerace
    The Soviet Union launched the first human into space and it took the US a year to put John Glenn through orbit as well. In order to prove that communism was not the superiority, Kennedy bold proposed the goal of reaching the moon in that decade. This made the space race a big component of the Cold War.
  • Warren Court Decisions

    Warren Court Decisions
    A series of reforms began to change legislation representation. In cases like Baker v Carr, the court declared that urban votes should have same representatives for population as rural voters. This eventually became the "one person one vote" rule.
  • Twenty-fourth Admendment

    Twenty-fourth Admendment
    This admendment was passed and added to the constituion to ban states from taxing citizens to vote. The southern states had these to poll taxes to prevent African Americans from voting. It was not based on gender or race so it had been constitutional. This passed admendment helped fuel more projects in the south.
  • Kennedy's Foreign Policy Speech

    Kennedy's Foreign Policy Speech
    At the escalation of the Cold War, the president gave a speech to respond to those who critisized his foreign policy. His main focus was to create programs to help aid poorer nations. Through the Peace Corps, many American citizens were trained to visit other countries and vollunteer for educations or health care. Another policy was Alliance for Progress that gave billions of dollars to build schools and hospitals in Latin America.
  • March On Washington

    March On Washington
    African American leaders planned a huge march at the capital and demand passage for civil rights laws. This was the largest civil rights demonstration with 200,000 people crowded into the National Mall. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech. This day long rally united the Civil Rights movement further.
  • Kennedy Assasinated

    Kennedy Assasinated
    Kennedy traveled to the south to win back opposition and chose to ride in an exposed open motorcade. He was fatally shot on the way to give a speech. His death shocked the nation and he had left behind an unfinsihed legacy for President Johnson to fufill.
  • Johnson's Sate of the Union Address

    Johnson's Sate of the Union Address
    After the sudden succession of Lyndon B. Johnson, many Americans expected him to fufill the ideals Kennedy left behind. In his State of the Union Address, he declared his decision to have a war on poverty. He asked Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act to fund new antipoverty programs like Job Corps or VISTA. Johnson plans helped change Kennedy's vision into a reality.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    This resolution allowed the president to take "all necessary measure to repel any armed attack against US forces". Johnson had the power to expand the war. Most senators and congress approved the resolution and hoped it would end the rapid deteriorating situation in South Vietnam.
  • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

    Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    The SNCC refused to accept a segregated democratic party so they created the MFDP. They elected 68 delegates to the Democratic National Convention. After a powerful testimony from Hamer, Johnson compromised but the MFDP failed in the end. However, it helped for future increases in power for minorities in politics.
  • Commencement Address

    Commencement Address
    Later Johnson realized he no longer wanted to follow in Kennedy's footsetps but create his own. He used the phrase Greate Society in his speech at the University of Michigan and it became the term for domestic programs of his administration. This view ultimately helped him win the election against Goldwater in that year.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed

    Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed
    Lyndon Johnson took office and supported the passage of strong civil rights bills. Congress fought to end it but it became a law. This law finally banned discrimination in employment and in public accommodations.
  • CORE Protest

    CORE Protest
    Weinberg set up a table to collect donations for CORE and police arrested him for trespassing. Students surrounded the police car to prevent it from moving. Thirty two hours later, there were 7,000 demonstrators but the government did not give in to their demands. This free speech movement was another protest that simply ended in violence.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Johnson ordered a bombing campaign over North Vietnam to destroy army bases, air fields, bridges, roads, railways, and power plants. The communists were able to withstand the bombing with the help of the Soviet Union and China. This frustrated Johnson.
  • Selma March

    Selma March
    King began to campaign to gain voting rights for African Americans. King was arrested in their march along with others, including children. After a violent attack in Marion, King organized a march across Edmund Petus Bridge. Eventually, with the help of federal protection against police with clubs, chains, and electric cattle prods, the marchers reached Montgomery.
  • Delano, CA Strike

    Delano, CA Strike
    Latinos sought social justice on the farm field and asked for fair wages. The National Farm Workers Association joined under Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. The strike successfully brought publicity to the issue for Latinos.
  • Carmichael's Rally Speech

    Carmichael's Rally Speech
    As the head of SNCC, Stokely Carmichael abandoned the idea of nonviolence. He coined the term Black Power as a call for politcal and economical power. CORE also adopted this philosophy.
  • NOW created

    NOW created
    A group of feminists formed the National Organization for Women (NOW). They fought gender discrimination in workplaces, schools, and the justice system. It worked to end violence against women and to achieve abortion rights. They lobbied government and held rallies. NOW helped encourage womens rights.
  • Black Panther Party Forms

    Black Panther Party Forms
    As a reaction to Black Power, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale created the Black Panther Party. They called for violent revolutions. They carried guns and protected African American neighborhoods against police attacks. However, this led to shoot outs and deaths to both the Black Panther Party and the police.
  • MLK against Vietnam War

    MLK against Vietnam War
    Both doves, those against the war, and hawks, those for the war, had complaints against Johnson's decsions. Most spoken was Martin Luther King Jr. who claime it was draining resources from Great Society programs. Polls showed African Americans were more inclinded to be against the war, considering discrimination had not been abolished completely.
  • Federal Alliance of Land Grants Issue

    Federal Alliance of Land Grants Issue
    Reies Lopez Tijerina formed the Federal Alliance of Land Grants to focus on the issue of land rights. They charged Rio Arriba County courthouse for justice. However, the movement only accomplished violence and negative publicity.
  • Pueblo Incident

    Pueblo Incident
    Johnson fought to stunt the spread of communism and also improve the relationship with the USSR. However, North Korea forces captured Pueblo, a US navy spy ship off their coast but they claimed they were in international waters. They refused to return the ship so Johnson ordered 14,000 National Guard, air force, and navy. The incident was resolved in Dec when North Korea released the crew. It shows Johnson was determined to stop the commmist powers.
  • Main Communist Offense Begins

    Main Communist Offense Begins
    This was the start of Tet, the Vietnamese New Year. Including the US Embassy, North Vietnam took advantage of the holiday to attack. The attack resulted in homeless civilians that further opposed the revolters and went against Vietcong.
  • King Assasinated

    King Assasinated
    King visited Memphis to speak at a rally. James Earl Ray shot and killed King at his motel with a rifle. As soon as three weeks, 46 people were dead, 2,600 were injured, and 21,000 arrested. His death ensued chaos among the African American community.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    US troops went on a serach-and-destroy mission to find Vietcong fighters. The soldiers ended up killing 450 women, children, and elderly men. This event shocked people and created a bigger speration between war supporters and opponents.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    Also called the Fair Housing Act, it banned disrimination in the sale or rental of housing. This paved way for increased integration in schools and businesses began to set up affirmative action for helping minorities.
  • Poor People's Campaign

    Poor People's Campaign
    In reaction to Martin Luther King Jr.'s death, Abernathy, his successor, led this protest for SCLC. It had terrible media reports due to members invovled with gangs or harassing reporters. The role of SCLC began to decline without King's guidance.
  • American Indian Movement

    American Indian Movement
    Founded in Minnestoa by Dennis Banks and Clyde Bellecourt, this group became the large force behind the Red movement. They called for renewal of traditional cultures, economic independence, and a better education for Indian children. This movement spoke for Native Americans everywhere.
  • Chicago Democratic Convention Protest

    Chicago Democratic Convention Protest
    There was debate between McCarthy and Humphrey. On the street, 10,000 protesters gathered to demand an end to the war and to reject Johnson's Vietnam policies. The police ended the protest with violence that shocked viewers on TV. This movement proved the generation gap between parents who experienced World War ll and the Great Depression compared to the teens who had not.
  • Nixon Wins the Race

    Nixon Wins the Race
    Hubert Humphrey ran as the democratic candidate, George Wallace ran as independent, and Richard Nixon ran as republican. The election was very close because Wallace took votes from both sides. However, Nixon still won the mandate and it gave him the confidence to pursue new policies for Vietnam.
  • Woodstock Music and Art Fair

    Woodstock Music and Art Fair
    400,000 people attended this fair in rural upstate New York. It resulted in massive traffic jams that forced officers to close the roads. However, the festival was peaceful. It had appearences by Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Joan Baez, and the Grateful Dead. This marked the high point of counterculture.,000%20Strong%2069441-30a.jpg
  • La Raza Unida Party Formed

    La Raza Unida Party Formed
    Gutierrez formed the RUP for bilingual education, improved public services, education for migrant workers, and an end to job discrimination. RUP canidates were elected to office in several places where there was a higher Latino population. The RUP helped bring attention to the Latino concerns within the government.
  • Kent State University Violence

    Kent State University Violence
    Demonstrators set fire to the Campus Reserve Officer's Training Coprs building two days earlier. Then students gathered for an antiwar rally. Soldiers fired into the crowd when students threw rocks at them. Four students were killed and nine injured. This made a strike movement across the nation against violence.
  • Twenty-Sixth Amendment

    Twenty-Sixth Amendment
    The amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. At the same time, young people supported it and Kissinger announced a peace breakthrough in Paris. This amendment helped increase involvement of the younger people.
  • Government Ends Draft

    Government Ends Draft
    As the war increased, the government turned to depend on registered draft personnel. Men who were enlisted in college could recieve deferments but this angered others who were poor and felt the unfair disadvantage. They changed it to random lottery drawings and finally returned to volunteers only.,_New_York_City,_June_5,_1917.jpg/300px-Young_men_registering_for_military_conscription,_New_Yor
  • Roe vs Wade

    Roe vs Wade
    The supreme court ruled that banning abortion violated the constitutional right to privacy. Supporters thought women need the equality to control if they have children or not. Opposers had religious or morla beliefs to protect fetal life. The debate still exists today.