European Union - A Timeline

  • The reconstruction of Germany

    The reconstruction of Germany was from 1945-1949. After the war Germany was seperated in for parts- France, Great Britain, the USA and the Sowjetunion gets one part. Mainly the ladies builded up the country because the men were dead or had big injuries like only one leg or one arm. The economy was very bad after the war and so the people didnt had enough food for survive. Thats why a lot of people died. Furthermore a lot of industries were builded down for example the weapon industrie.
  • Beginning of the Marshall-Plan

    The Marshall Plan was an American project monetarily helping European countries rebuild after the second World War to prevent a takeover from the Soviet Union.
  • Establishment of the "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation"

    The Marshall Plan required am European organisation to manage the money given to Europe and through that one of the first European co-operation projects was founded.
  • Robert Schumann Speech

    Robert Schumann Speech
    After the two World Wars, the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, proposed a new form of organisation of states in Europe called a supranational community. The Declaration was issued on 9 May 1950, which will become the European Day. Picture
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The treaty of Paris was signed by France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux. They formed the European Coal and Steel Community. They shared these raw materials which had been the cause of the war. This treaty gave stability to Europe. It lasted until 2002. Picture
  • In this year, the "European Defence Community" was proposed

    It was to build an European army and further the military alliance of the Treaty of Brussels to better protect Europe against the Soviet Union, in light of the recent outbreak of the Korean War.
  • Establishment of a "Western European Union"

    The idea of a "European Defence Community" was shot down by the French parliament, but a "Western European Union" was proposed, which did not require an European army but still focused on a bigger military alliance which would include West Germany and Italy.
  • Paris Agreements

    The Paris Agreements allowed West Germany to regain full sovereignty, allowing it to join the new Western European Union and the NATO. This gave western Europe another ally against the Soviet Union, which was the main motivation for the Agreements.
  • Treaty of Rome

    Treaty of Rome
    The Treaty of Rome, officially established the European Economic Community (TEEC). It was an international agreement that led to the founding of the European Economic Community (EEC) on 1 January 1958. It was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Western Germany.
  • EEC

    EEC
    Founder: Jean Monnet
    Rome
  • Spanish Emigration

    Spanish Emigration
    In the 50s a lot Spanish people emigrated to peripheral big cities and abroad due to bad harvests. About 2 million people had to leave the country to go to Germany, France and Switzerland to look for better life conditions.They sent their money to Spain, which helped the Spanish economy a lot. The economy of the country improved a lot as well, since Spain became very popular attracting many tourists from Europe.From 1973, the emigration to Europe decreased because of the oil crisis. Picture.
  • Hippie Movement

    Hippie Movement
    About 1960, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around German folk music. Known as Der Wandervogel ("migratory bird"), the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing amateur music and singing, creative dress, and communal outings involving hiking and camping.
  • Merger Treaty

    Merger Treaty
    Picture
    This Treaty (Brussels Treaty)combined the European Coal and Steel Community, The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure. It came into force on july 1st 1967. This treaty is regarded as the beginning of the modern European Union.
  • May 68

    May 68
    It is a revolution directed by leftist students who were against the consumer society.It started with an anti-imperialist demonstration, and occupation of Sorbonne. The students wanted to fight for the workers and against the consumer society .The revolution didn’t cause decisive changes in the French society, but it caused the fall of ’de Gaulle’, president of France at this time. The university became more democratic and the working conditions improved.
  • The Hague Summit

    The Hague Summit
    PictureThe Netherlands and Luxemburg take over the presidency of the Council of the European Communities. At the Hague Summit the EEC’s political leaders decided to move further ahead with European integration, opening the way for its first enlargement.
  • Hip Hop

    Hip Hop
    Hip hop culture (or Hip-hop) is a cultural movement that formed during the 1970s among youth residing in the South Bronx in New York City. The hip hop artwork and "slang" of US urban communities quickly found its way to Europe, as the culture's global appeal took root.It is characterized by four distinct elements, all of which represent the different manifestations of the culture: rap music (oral), turntablism or "DJing" (aural), b-boying (physical) and graffiti art (visual).
  • The Oil Crisis

    The Oil Crisis
    PictureMembers of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) proclaimed an oil embargo due to political reasons. The Yom Kippur War between Arabs and Israelis increased the price of oil because The West helped Israel. The OAPEC stopped and forbade the production and the trade of oil with The West. When the embargo ended, in March 1974, the consequences were mainly economic. The price of oil rose from $3 per barrel to $12. This caused a big inflation in Europe and all over the world.
  • The Carnation Revolution

    The Carnation Revolution
    InformationPictureTHE CARNATION REVOLUTION (25 OF APRIL, 1974), is the name of the revolution that took place in Portugal. As a consequence of that revolution, the Dictatorship that had dominated Portugal since 1926, was eliminated.
    The end of this regime, well known as ‘Estado Novo’, allowed the last Portuguese colonies to earn their independence.
  • The Death of Franco

    The Death of Franco
    PictureBiographyInformationFRANCISCO FRANCO died on 20th November 1975.
    He was a leader of a coup d'etat against the Spanish Second Republic in 1936. After this uprising, the Spanish Civil War started and he was supported by fascists. He ruled as a dictator until his death in 1975. 2 days after his death, Juan Carlos I became King of Spain.
  • Signing of the Spanish Constitution

    Signing of the Spanish Constitution
    PictureInformationConstitution
    It is the fundamental law of Spain. From 1975 to 1978, there was a period of transition between Dictatorship and Democracy when deep changes ocurred, such as legalization of political parties,freedom of speech and universal vote.
  • first direct election to the parliament

    On the 7th and 10th of june 1979 was the first direct election. Before these days, the parliament was built through different politicans from the member states. The Social Democrats were the strongest party in the parliament and the president was Simone Veil. The voter turnout's average was since this election until today 63%.
  • Goth

    Goth
    The goth subculture is a contemporary subculture found in many countries. It began in England during the early 1980s in the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. Notable early gothic rock bands included Joy Division and Bauhaus. The goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, and has continued to diversify.
  • Accession of Greece

    Accession of Greece
    Greece is a member of the European Union since 1981 and together with other members a monetary union. It is a member of the United Nations, OECD , NATO, the OSCE and the Council of Europe .
  • Greenland leaves Community

    Greenland leaves Community
    Because of its belonging to Denmark Greenland was a member of the European Community since 1973. But the overfishing of the Greenland waters by other european countries led to a plebiscite in which the citizens decided to leave the EC on 1st january 1985.
  • Accession of Portugal and Spain

    Accession of Portugal and Spain
    The Agreement of Accession 1985 was the agreement between the member states of the European Communities, Spain and Portugal, concerning these countries' accession into the European Community. It was set on 1 January 1986. The Agreement arranged accession of Spain and Portugal to the European Community and changed earlier agreements of the European Communities. As such it is an integrated part of the constitutional basis of the European Union.
  • Single European Act

    Single European Act
    Single European Act
    The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome. The Act set the European Community an objective of establishing a single market by 31 December 1992, and codified European Political Cooperation, the forerunner of the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy. It was signed at Luxembourg on 17 February 1986, and at The Hague on 28 February 1986. It came into effect
  • Adopt the European flag

    Adopt the European flag
    The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on an azure background. It was introduced in 1955 by the Europe as the flag and adopted by the European Community in 1986 . Today it is known as a symbol of the European Union
  • The fall of the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe

    The fall of the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe
    The Berlin Wall was during the division of Germany a border fortification system of the German Democratic Republic ( GDR ), which was from 13 August 1961 until 9 November 1989. The fall of the Berlin Wall led to many events like the end of the Cold War
  • Maastricht Treaty

    Maastricht Treaty
    The Maastricht Treaty was signed on February 7th 1992 in – as the name already says – Maastricht (it’s in the Netherlands). With this treaty, the European Union was made. Before the European Union was made, there was a community of European states called “European Community”. It’s based on three pillars, which are called:
    First pillar: “European Communities”
    Second pillar: “Common foreign and security policy”
    Third pillar: “police and justicial collaboration”
  • Copenhagen criteria defined

    Copenhagen criteria defined
    The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a country is selectable to join the European Union. The criteria says that a state has the institutions to keep democratic governance and human rights, has a functioning market economy, and accepts the obligations and intent of the EU. These membership criteria were laid down at the June 1993 European Council in Copenhagen, Denmark, from which they take their name.
  • Accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden

    Accession of  Austria, Finland and Sweden
    The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU). This was the EU's fourth enlargement and came into effect on the 1 January of that year. All these states were previous members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and had been less interested in joining the EU than other European countries.
  • The Schengen agreement

    The Schengen agreement
    Link to photo The Schengen agreement means that every citizen of the member countries of the Schengen agreement can cross the border without a visa. This came into force on 26 April, 1995. The agreement is really helpful for the economy because goods can be traded between different countries much easier.
  • The first nations of the Euro

    The first nations of the Euro
    Link to photo The countries that got the Euro in1999 are: Belgium, Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherland, Austria, Portugal and Spain.The European Centralbank opened in Frankfurt am Main on 1st July 1998 and controlled the Euro. On 1st January 1999 the Euro was introduced in the countires mentioned above.But it was only after a few years, in 2002, that all the bank accounts and earnings were changed 1:1 from the old valuta to the Euro.
  • The Introduction of the Euro in Germany

    The Introduction of the Euro in Germany
    Link to photo In 1999, the Euro was introduced in Germany, but it was called “invisible” money, because at that point in time it was only money used by the financial sector. In the night from 2001 to 2002, the Euro was introduced as cash. At the beginning many people didn’t trust in the currency because the Euro replaced the “German Mark” and the money in eleven other countries in Europe like the Belgian Franc or the Greece drachm. Today there are 18 countries using the Euro as a currency.
  • EU Day of languages

    EU Day of languages
    Link to photo Many cities celebrate the „Day of languages“ every year since 2002 and advertise their citizens to learn foreign languages. There are presentations, lectures and language courses. „The day when Europe stops to speak its languages is also the day when Europe - as an idea, as a project - stops to exist“, says Androulla Vassiliou, the commissioner for multilingualism in EU. „To work towards a better society together and to respect our differences squarely is one of the basic goals of the EU.“, she
  • Iraq disarmament crisis

    Iraq disarmament crisis
    Link to pictureWhen the Iraq War started in March 2003 after the United States began bombarding Baghdad, every state of both - the European Union and the NATO - had to decide about their part in the war. While France and Germany were clearly against the American invasion plan, the UK, Spain, Italy and some states in Central and Eastern Europe decided to support the USA during the war. This split within the EU and the NATO is today known as the "Iraq disarmament crisis"
  • European constitution

    European constitution
    Link to photo In 2004, heads of states and governments of the EU wanted to renew the European constitution by summarizing and adding new elements like a common symbol as the blue flag with the yellow stars or defined important values and goals of the EU (eg freedom). France and the Netherlands didn't accept the changes.5 years later, the reform contract, which was similar to the European constitution of 2004, came into force.
  • The EU east enlargement

    The EU east enlargement
    Link to photo The EU east enlargement was the fifth and largest expansion of the EU since its existence. After plebiscites in Estonia, Latvia, Lithunia, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Cyprus those states joined into the EU on 1st May, 2004. On 9 October, 2002, the European committee advised to include these ten countries to the EU. Those ten countries joined the EU because they had a stable economy and historic advantages.
  • Nobel Prize for Peace

    Nobel Prize for Peace
    Link to photo The EU got the Nobel Prize for Peace at 12 October 2012.The jury caused: “The EU has promote peace, democracy and human rights for more than 6 centuries.”This is very special after having two world wars.