Honors World History Timeline

  • 202

    Rome Economic

    In 202 BC Scipio routed Hannibal’s forces on the plain of Zama outside of Carthage and took the city. This ended the Punic War.
  • 206

    China Cultural

    Buddhism spread to China during China’s Han Dynasty in 206 BC. Buddhism offered more hope than Confucianism or Daoism (cultural diffusion)
  • 220

    Rome Economic

    220 BC Marius promised to all people who would join his army that they could have some of the land from the war as retired legionnaires. This was going to be given as a reward for their loyalty.
  • 263

    Greece Cultural

    263 BC The Greeks wrote 2 kinds of drama: Tragedy and Comedy. Tragedy was a serious drama about common themes while comedy contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and humor.
  • 265

    Rome Environment

    265 BC the Romans had defeated the Etruscans, nce Rome had taken control on Italy, its attention was drawn to Sicily.
  • 300

    Rome Economic

    300 BC Next to the consuls, the most important magistrates were censors. Censors recorded the city’s population and how much property each person owned.
  • 335

    Greece Cultural

    335 BC A Greek philosopher named Zano founded the school of philosophy caused Stoicism. He said, live in harmony with the will of god.
  • 400

    Rome Social

    400 BC All men between the ages of 17 and 46 with a minimum amount of property were required to serve in the army during times of war. Drafting of soldiers was very important.
  • 400

    Rome Cultural

    400 BC Once Greece became a Roman province, the Romans adopted many elements of that culture. Even before they took over Greece, many Romans had admired Greek culture.
  • 450

    Rome Social

    450 BC, due to the Law of the 12 Tables, there was a ban on marriage between patricians and plebeians. It did not allow marriages from different social classes.
  • 450

    Rome Political

    450 BC the plebeians forced the patricians to have all laws written down. Having laws written down helps everyone to understand and know the laws better.
  • 450

    Rome Cultural

    450 BC: The forum was the center of the Roman life. It was the heart of the cit. It was a political center but also a popular place for shopping and gossip.
  • 500

    Egypt Cultural

    Buddhism developed in ancient India. Siddhartha Gautama, also known as Buddha, was the founder and was born in 500 BC. He was the prince of a small kingdom.
  • 500

    Greece Social

    500 BC the Athenian Cleisthenes introduced further reforms. Only free adult male property owners born in the Athens were considered citizens.
  • 500

    Rome Environment

    500 BC: Etruscan Influences: Built Romes first city walls and sewer. The first walls in Rome helped the environment in many ways.
  • 508

    Rome Political

    508 BC The heads of a few aristocratic families, known as patricians, elected officials from among themselves. The common people, or plebeians, challenged the patricians for power.
  • 551

    China Cultural

    China’s most influential scholar was Confucius who was born in 551 B.C. Confucius lived in a time when the Zhou Dynasty was in decline. He led a scholarly life, studying and teaching history, music, and moral character.
  • Dec 5, 600

    Greece Social

    600 BC men were expected to serve in the army until age 60. Boys usually left their home at the age of 7 to train. This was to ensure that they had a strong, experienced army.
  • Aug 5, 616

    Rome Political

    616 BC At first Rome was ruled by Latin kings. It came under the rule of Etruscans of Northern Italy and they ruled Rome until 509 BC.
  • Oct 5, 750

    Greece Economic

    750 BC city-states (polis) was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included villages.
  • Nov 14, 753

    Rome Cultural

    According to legend, Romulus and Remus, twin brothers, were raised by a she-wolf. It was founded in the city of Rome in 753 BC.
  • Dec 5, 771

    China Political

    The Zhou ruled from around 1027 to 256 B.C. In 771 B.C., nomads from the north and west attacked the Zhou capital and murdered the Zhou monarch.
  • Mar 18, 1000

    Rome Environment

    Regardless if Romulus and Remus actually existed, the people who built one were members of Indo- European tribe known as the Latins who had reached Italy in the 1000’s BC
  • Sep 8, 1027

    China Economic

    1027-256 BC Iron tools made farm work easier and more productive. The ability to grow more food helped Zhou farmers support thriving cities.
  • Dec 5, 1027

    China Political

    Around 1027 B.C., the Zhou overthrew the Shang and established their own dynasty.The Zhou established a number of key traditions, including the importance of family and social order.
  • Dec 5, 1027

    China Economic

    1027 BC The Zhou Dynasty produced many innovations. Roads and canals were built to stimulate trade and agriculture and coined money was introduced, which further improved trade.
  • Dec 5, 1200

    Greece Political

    1200 BC The Mycenaeans fought a 10 year war with Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen; the beautiful wife of a Greek king. Not long after, the civilization collapsed.
  • Dec 5, 1400

    China Environment

    1400 BC Only about 10 percent of China’s land is suitable for farming. Much of the land lies within the small plain between the Huang He and the Chang Jiang in eastern China. This plain, known as the North China Plain, is China’s heartland.
  • Sep 5, 1500

    Greece Economic

    1500 BC The Mycenaean came into contact with the Minoan civilization through either trade or war. Mycenaeans were amazing in Seaborne Trade.
  • Dec 5, 1500

    Egypt Political

    Aryans, a nomadic people from north of the Hindu Kush mountains, swept into the Indus Valley around 1500 B.C. Indian civilization grew again under the influence of these nomads.
  • Dec 5, 1500

    India Cultural

    1500 B.C. Like the other two river valley civilizations, the Harappan culture developed a written language. In contrast to cuneiform and hieroglyphics, the Harappan language has been impossible to decipher
  • Dec 5, 1500

    Greece Cultural

    1500 BC The Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan writing system to the Greek lands. They also decorated vases with Minoan designs.
  • Greece Social

    1600 BC a warrior- king ruled the surrounding villages and farms. Strong rulers controlled areas such as Athens.
  • China Political

    The Shang Dynasty lasted from around 1700 B.C. to 1027 B.C. They were the first family of Chinese rulers to leave written records.
  • China Social

    During the Shang Dynasty from 1700 BC. The higher classes lived in timber-framed houses with walls of clay and straw.The peasants and craftspeople lived in huts.
  • Egypt Environment

    1750 B.C., the quality of building in the Indus Valley cities declined. Gradually, the great cities fell into decay. Later it was discovered that it was due to the earthquakes and floods caused by tectonic plate movement which altered the course of the Indus River.
  • Mesopotamia Economic

    1792 BC. the amorite king, Hammurabi, became king. He improved the tax-collection system, increased trade for the empire to grow wealthy and made rules for Sumerians to follow.
  • China Cultural

    1800 BC In China, the family was closely linked to religion. The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living members of the family. The Chinese did not regard these spirits as mighty gods. Rather, the spirits were more like troublesome or helpful neighbors who demanded attention and respect.
  • Rome Social

    In 60 BC the first triumvirate was formed with Cesar, Gnaeus Pompey, and Licinius. Triumvirates were supposed to bring peace to the empire.
  • 2000

    2000-200 BC The chariot, one of the major tools of war, was probably first introduced by contact with cultures from western Asia. Professional warriors underwent lengthy training to learn the techniques of driving and shooting from horse-drawn chariots.
  • China Social

    2000 BC The elder men in the family controlled the family’s property and made important decisions. Women were treated as inferiors and were expected to obey their fathers, their husbands, and later, their own sons.
  • China Economic

    Around 2000 B.C. settlements grew into China’s first cities. According to legend, the first Chinese dynasty, the Xia Dynasty, emerged about this time.
  • Egypt Social

    2000 BC Women in Egypt held many of the same rights as men. A wealthy or middle-class woman could own and trade property, she could propose marriage or seek divorce.
  • Egypt Environment

    2000 BC When the Nile’s floodwaters were just a few feet lower than normal, the amount of fresh silt and water for crops was greatly reduced. Thousands of people starved. When floodwaters were a few feet higher than usual, the unwanted water destroyed houses, granaries, and the precious seeds that farmers needed for planting.
  • China Social

    2000 BC Shang society was sharply divided between nobles and peasants. A ruling class of warrior-nobles headed by a king governed the Shang. These noble families owned the land.
  • China Environment

    2000-200 BC Like the other ancient civilizations in this chapter, China’s first civilization developed in a river valley. China faced the danger of floods, there wasn’t much trading due to geographic isolation and natural boundaries didn’t fully protect China from invasions.
  • Greece Political

    2000 BC A large wave of Indo-Europeans migrated. Some of these who settled on Greek land were known as Mycenaeans.
  • Egypt Economic

    During the Middle Kingdom, Government collapsed around 2100 BC. For almost 200 years, economic problems, invasions and civil wars racked Egypt.
  • Egypt Political

    The power of the pharaohs declined about 2180 B.C., marking the end of the Old Kingdom. Strong pharaohs regained control during the Middle Kingdom (2040–1640 B.C.) and restored law and order.
  • Egypt Political

    2300 BC- The planned cities and how well-developed they were suggested that they had a strong government. They made higher walls to resemble a temple and thats where higher class people lived.
  • Egypt Social

    2300 BC- They were the first to start plumbing. The intricacy of their plumbing showed social classes because the better their plumbing is, the higher they were in social status.
  • Mesopotamia Cultural

    In 2300 BC, Sumerians advanced in science and technology. They developed a number system in base 60 and architectural innovations influenced Mesopotamian civilizations.
  • Mesopotamia Cultural

    Cuneiform Sumerians created a system of writing called cuneiform. One of the first known maps was made on a clay tablet in about 2300 B.C.
  • Egypt Political

    2300 BC- Archaeologists didnt find a lot of weapons. That suggested that conflicts with other places was very minimal in the Indus Valley.
  • Mesopotamia Economic

    About 2350 B.C., a conqueror named Sargon defeated the city-states of Sumer. Sargon led his army from Akkad, a city-state north of Sumer. The Akkadians had long before adopted most aspects of Sumerian culture. Sargon’s conquests helped to spread that culture even farther, beyond the Tigris-Euphrates Valley.
  • Mesopotamia Cultural

    2500 BC- Gods Like many peoples in the Fertile Crescent, the Sumerians believed that many different gods controlled the various forces in nature. The belief in more than one god is called polytheism.
  • Egypt Political

    2500 BC- The largest cities were Kaliebngan, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Those were the most developed cities where most trading and culture developed.
  • Mesopotamia Political

    2500 B.C., the city-states of Sumer were constantly at war with one another. Even though the weakened city-states could no longer defend themselves from further attacks, their civilizations did not die.
  • India Economic

    Planned cities began around 2500 BC. They built strong levees, or earthen walls to keep water out of their cities. They also laid out their cities on a precise grid system.
  • India Social

    2500–1500 B.C. The Harappan cities show a remarkable uniformity in religion and culture. The housing suggests that social divisions in the society were not great. Artifacts such as clay and wooden children’s toys suggest a relatively prosperous society that could afford to produce nonessential goods
  • Egypt Environment

    2500 B.C., while Egyptians were building pyramids, people in the Indus Valley were laying the bricks for India’s first cities. They built strong levees, or earthen walls, to keep water out of their cities.
  • Mesopotamia Politcal

    2500 BC, many Sumerian city-states came under the rule of dynasties. Dynasties are series of rulers from the same family. Military leaders also became full time rulers.
  • Interactions With Environment

    By 2500 B.C., new cities were arising all over the Fertile Crescent in what is now Syria, northern Iraq, and Turkey. Sumerians exchanged products and ideas, such as living in cities, with neighboring cultures.
  • Egypt Social

    2500 BC The Egyptians were not locked into their social classes. Lower-and middle-class Egyptians could gain higher status through marriage or success in their jobs. Slaves could also hope to earn their freedom as a reward for their loyal service.
  • Egypt Cultural

    3000-2000 BC Practical needs led to many Egyptian inventions. For example, the Egyptians developed a calendar to help them keep track of the time between floods and to plan their planting season.
  • India Cultural

    2500 B.C., while Egyptians were building pyramids, people in the Indus Valley were laying the bricks for India’s first cities. They built strong levees, or earthen walls, to keep water out of their cities.
  • Egypt Social

    2600 BC- They traded silver and gold with northern Afghanistan. Some of their culture adapted into India.
  • India Economic

    Trading began as early as 2600 B.C. and continued until 1800 B.C. The Indus River provided a link to the sea. This access allowed Indus Valley inhabitants to develop trade with distant peoples, including the Mesopotamians.
  • Egypt Cultural

    The Old Kingdom- (2649-2143 BC)- Also known as the Age of Pyramids. It was a golden age of culture and civilization. Painting, literature and sculpture flourished. Advances in medicine, architecture, astronomy, navigation and engineering were made.
  • Egypt Economic

    2649-2143 BC For the kings of the Old Kingdom, the resting place after death was an immense structure called a pyramid. The Old Kingdom was the great age of pyramid building in ancient Egypt.
  • Egypt Environment

    3000 BC Egyptian farmers were much more fortunate than the villagers of Mesopotamia. The Nile flowed regularly and there weren’t many issues with the river.
  • Mesopotamia Political

    3000 BC, wars became even more frequent. Sumerian priests and people gave commanders permanent control of standing armies.
  • Greece Environment

    3000 BC Ancient Greece consisted mainly of mountains. The regions physical geography directly shaped Greek traditions and customs.
  • Greece Economic

    3000 BC The sea was a big part of life for the Greek people. Sea travel and trade were important because Greece used natural resources.
  • Egypt Environment

    3000 BC River travel was common, but it ended at the point in the Nile where boulders turn the river into churning rapids called a cataract This made it impossible for riverboats to pass this spot, known as the First Cataract, to continue upstream south to the interior of Africa.
  • Mesopotamia Economic

    3000 BC, the Sumerians built a number of cities each surrounded by field of barley and wheat. Although these cities shared the same culture, they developed their own governments, each with their own rulers.
  • Egypt Social

    3000-2000 BC In the later periods of Egyptian history, slavery became a widespread source of labor. Slaves, usually captives from foreign wars, served in the homes of the rich or toiled endlessly in the gold mines of Upper Egypt.
  • Egypt Cultural

    3000-2000 BC the development of writing was one of the keys to the growth of Egyptian civilization. Simple pictographs were the earliest form of writing in Egypt, but scribes quickly developed a more flexible writing system called hieroglyphics
  • Greece Political

    3000 BC mountains divided the land into a number of different regions. Instead of a single government, they developed small, independent communities within each other.
  • Greece Environment

    3000 BC Climate was one of the 3 important environmental influences of Greek civilizations. Men spent lots of time outside, 48 degrees was known for the winter on average, 80 degrees was known to be the summers temperature.
  • Greece Environment

    3000 BC the Minoans lived on the large Greek Island of Crete. They created an elegant civilization that had great power.
  • Egypt Political

    About 3100 BC, the two countries were united under King Narmer, a king of upper Egypt. He built a new capital city at Memphis on the border between the two lands and established the first Egyptian dynasty.
  • Egypt Political

    By 3200 B.C., the villages of Egypt were under the rule of two separate kingdoms, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Eventually the two kingdoms were united.
  • Mesopotamia Interactions With Environement

    Around 3300 BC the people called the Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia as well. For the first time, there were villages which later expanded into cities.
  • Mesopotamia Social

    4400 BC, Lower class in Mesopotamia were divided. People that were merchants, artisans and scribes were more wealthy/had more power than farmers.
  • Mesopotamia Interactions with Environment

    People first began to settle and farm the flat, swampy lands in southern mesopotamia before 4500 BC. Good soil was the advantage that attracted settlers but there were disadvantages as well.
  • Mesopotamia Social

    Kings, landholders and some priests made up the highest levels. Social lives affected the lives of both men and women. Sumerian women had more rights than in other civilizations.
  • Mesopotamia Social

    One of the marks of civilization is the specialization of labor. Mesopotamian social pyramid was simple, gods and kings at the top, farmers and enslaved people were at the bottom, Civilizations also developed social classes.
  • Egypt Economic

    First farming villages along the Nile appeared as early as 5000 BC. Egyptians farmed along the Nile for fertile land and to help water their crops.
  • India Economic

    Archaeologists have found evidence in the highlands of agriculture and domesticated sheep and goats dating to about 7000 B.C. Domesticating animals means to tame them and use them in farming and agriculture.