William Stern tried to classify people by their norms, types, and aberrations. He believed that the reat essence of personality and intelligence can be discovered. He was influenced by the studies of Binet.
Rene Descartes disected animals and studied their brains and discovered that the fluids in the animals brain contained "animal spirits"
Rene Descartes studied animals and their brain structures trying to figure out their functions and actions.
Charles Darwin did naturalistic studies on the struggle of the human life. He was once a doctor in a hospital that scared him seeing the fear and pain of his patients made him switch his focus to being a evolutionary scientist.
Charles Darwin studied evolutionary science on people and animals.
German psychologist, who was first to be named a psychologist and to establish his own labatory. (Wilhem Wundt)
Johm Watson study the behaviorism of people and their actions around others who are bad. He had an idea that psychology was defined as a natural science of behavior.
Wilhem Wundt was devoted to the study of experimental psychology, Wundt officially took psychology from a sub-discipline of psychology and biology to an unique scientific disciplin.
He was the first american psychologist. He wrote the first general text book on psychology, and remains one of the most well-liked and famous psychologist.
this is the study of how a mental process operates. William James is a psychologist who studys functionalism and studied the 'stream of conciousness'
Edward Thorndike experimented on cats and their behaviors. he tested to see if a cat had the intellegence to unlock the cage they were in to get to the food he had outside of the cage. All of the cats eventually learned how to unlock the cage and get their food.
Law effect of Edward Thorndike, does an experiment on cats to see if they can succeed in opening a latch to recieve a reward of food.
Bottom-Up- Data driven theories
Top-Down- High level cognitive process, existing knowledge, and prior expectations that influence perceprion
John Watson saw the study of peoples actions with the ability to predict and controll those actions.
William Sterns original formula for intelligence quotion. IQ=Mental Age (MA) / Chronological Age X 100
Eleanor Gibson who believed the bottom-up and top-down theories
Carl Rodgers studied education, psychotherapy, and counsiling
Carl Rodgers is know as one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honoredfor his pioneering research