History of Native Americans

  • European Slave Trade

    Over a 150 year period it is projected that hundreds of thousands of Indigenous People were forced into slavery by European settlers. Some were sent to Europe, the Carribean, and Africa-where they were traded for African slaves.
  • The Royal Proclamation of 1763

    King George III of England issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which placed First Nations Peoples and their land under the domination and protection of the British Crown. The designated label of First Nations People being "inferior" led to changes in the economic relationship with European Settlers, which would eventually lead to favor the European settlers. This was mainly accomplished by Native People entering the European Fur Trade and eliminating other competition.
  • Johnson v. M'Intosh

    Cheif Justice John Marshall is the first of the three cases to make up the Marshall Trilogy. Marhsall stated that private landowners could no longer puchase American Indian land. This was to prevent bidding wars between European Settlers over titled land.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

    The Cherokee Nation was stripped of their rights by the state of Georgia based off a fear that the federal government would not intervene and stake claim of removal. Georgia state government did this in hopes that this would force the Cherokee Nation out of their sacred lands and into the area designated by the removal policy. This was the second case in the Marshall Trilogy and ruled Cherokee Nation to have no jurisdiction as they were a dependent nation, "like a ward to it's gaurdian".
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    This Supreme Court case can be considered one of the first recognitions of an American Indian tribal sovereign nation. The Cherokee Nation was considered a sovereign nation merely one year after they were ruled as a dependent nation under the gaurdianship of the US governement. Worcester v. Georgia was the third of the Marshall Trilogy court cases and did not protect the Nation against the Removal Act of 1835.
  • Major Crimes Act

    The Major Crimes Act placed 7 major crimes under federal jurisdiction if committed by a Native person against another Native person or other person on Native Territory. This act took away the power for Native People to punish and to try serious offenders on their own territory.
  • Allotment Act

    The Allotment Act was also know as the "Dawes Act". After being signed into law, the act stated that single American Indians would be alloted 80 acres of land while families or head of households would be given 160 acres of tribal land. Any land on the reservations "left over" would be separated and sold to non-Natives, with the profit going to the United States government. This act cut reservation lands by almost 100,000 acres.
  • World War II

    The nations of Ojibwe, Lakota, and Haudenosaunee legally declare war against Germany, rather than fall under the declaration of the United Staes entering the war. This was to once again assert their independence as sovereign nations. The nations lost parts of jurisdiction with the Major Crimes Act and had to fight for the government to see them as sovereign rather than dependent within the United States.
  • Relocation Policy

    This policy was created to promote the assimilation of Native People into the mainstream Americanc culture and end relationships between tribes and the U.S.Relocation workers were stationed on reservations to recruit Native People to move toward the cities and were promised assistance with housing and finding a job, however once there, the government provided minimal assistance and resources. Many who had moved were only able to find minimum wage jobs and often ended up in slum areas.
  • Termination Policy

    The termination policy goes hand-in-hand with the assimilation from the Relocation Policy. It was the United States government's goal to move as many people "on a voluntary basis" into the city. This would result in shrinking the reservation land protected by tribal jurisdiction as well as infringe state jurisdiction over the tribes.
  • Indian Child Welfare Act

    This act, referred mostly as ICWA, was put in place in response to the government removing American Indian children from their family homes on reservations and sending them to off-reservation boarding schools. ICWA recognized the importance of family and tribal relations. ICWA has been revised and only applies to members (or eligible of membership) of federally recognized tribes in teh United States.
  • Continued Oppression

    American Indian nations still face oppression in modern culture. Oppression of American Indian nations has not completely stopped in America. Most recently, there have been issues with the names of the NFL Washington D.C. Redskins mascot as well as the University of North Dakota "Fighting Souix". There have been many cases related to UND mascot and the negativity that it enforces on the "Souix" nations of Lakota, Takota, and Dakota.