History of Molecular Biology —Cellular and Molecular Biology— Teacher Lida Inés Mancilla Estacio. Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.

  • Jöns Jakob Berzelius & Gerhardus Johannes Mulder

    Jöns Jakob Berzelius &  Gerhardus Johannes Mulder
    "They carried out elemental analyses of common animal and plant proteins. To everyone's surprise, all proteins had nearly the same empirical formula, roughly C400H620N100O120 with individual sulfur and phosphorus atoms"
  • Friedrich Miescher

    Friedrich Miescher
    To this scientific is attributed the name of the substance nuclein
  • Richard Altmann

    Richard Altmann
    Altmann added the word acid to the concept nucleic. The substance was located unicly in the chromosomes
  • Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak

    Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak
    They are some of the precursors of the Genetic, thanks to Mendel's law
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

    Thomas Hunt Morgan
    He modeled through genetic studies the organism of the famous fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Phoebus Levene

    Phoebus Levene
    Levene is the cientific who discovered the four bases in the phosphate chain as the sugar. For this scientific the DNA were linked phosphate -sugar- base. For this reason we known the unites called nucleotides
  • Tim Anson and Alfred Mirsky

    Tim Anson and Alfred Mirsky
    They are relevant for this sciensce field regards to have discovered the reversible process of denaturation. «Anson also suggested that denaturation was a two-state ("all-or-none") process, in which one fundamental molecular transition resulted in the drastic changes in solubility, enzymatic activity and chemical reactivity; he further noted that the free energy changes upon denaturation were much smaller than those typically involved in chemical reactions».
  • Hermann J. Muller

    Hermann J. Muller
    To this scientific is atributed the recognizing of the “gene as a basis of life” «Muller discovered the mutagenic effect of x-rays on Drosophila, and utilized this phenomenon as a tool to explore the size and nature of the gene» (WIKIMILI
  • Nikolai Koltsov

    Nikolai Koltsov
    His contributions are focused in the relevance of have being «proposed that inherited traits would be inherited via a "giant hereditary molecule" which would be made up of "two mirror strands that would replicate in a semi-conservative fashion using each strand as a template» (Ibídem).
  • Max Delbrück, Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky, and Karl G. Zimmer

    Max Delbrück, Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky, and Karl G. Zimmer
    They suggested «that chromosomes are very large molecules the structure of which can be changed by treatment with X-rays, and that by so changing their structure it was possible to change the heritable characteristics governed by those chromosomes»(Ibídem).
  • Weaver Warren

    Weaver Warren
    Warren would introduce the name molecular biology, although initially «was an idea of physical and chemical explanations of life, rather than a coherent discipline» (Ibídem).
  • George Beadle and Edward Tatum

    George Beadle and Edward Tatum
    The authors are recognized by have «demonstrated the existence of a precise relationship between genes and proteins»
  • Erwin Schroedinger

    Erwin Schroedinger
    He «proposed ways in which the principles of quantum physics might account for the stability, yet mutability, of the gene» (Ibídem).
  • Oswald Avery

    Oswald Avery
    He demonstrated that genes are made up of DNA
  • Linus Pauling

    Linus Pauling
    Firstable, he contributed both theoretical work on the nature of chemical bonds and experimental work using x-ray crystallography to discover the physical structure of macromolecular compounds» Then, he «demonstrated change in an individual protein, the hemoglobin in the erythrocytes of heterozygous or homozygous individuals»
  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

    Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    Both used phage viruses to confirm that the genetic material transmitted from generation to generation was DNA and not proteins. They confirmed that the genetic material of the bacteriophage, the virus which infects bacteria, is made up of DNA
  • James Watson and Francis Crick

    James Watson and Francis Crick
    Both Discovered the double helical structure of the DNA molecule.
    Molecular biology’s classical period began in 1953, with James Watson and Francis Crick’s discovery of the double helical structure of DNA.
  • Francis Crick

    Francis Crick
    n an influential presentation in 1957, Crick laid out the "central dogma of molecular biology", which foretold the relationship between DNA, RNA, and proteins, and articulated the "sequence hypothesis.
  • Har Gobind Khorana

    Har Gobind Khorana
    «Work by Crick and coworkers showed that the genetic code was based on non-overlapping triplets of bases, called codons, and Har Gobind Khorana and others deciphered the genetic code not long afterward (1966). These findings represent the birth of molecular biology».
  • Francois Jacob, Jacques Monod

    Francois Jacob, Jacques Monod
    «They used the bacteria Escherichia coli to investigate how environmental conditions impact gene expression and regulation. They also demonstrated that the products of certain genes regulated the expression of other genes by acting upon specific sites at the edge of those genes. They also hypothesized the existence of an intermediary between DNA and its protein products, which they called messenger RNA»
  • Seymour Benzer

    Seymour Benzer
    «Returning to the fruit flies used in Mendelian genetics, Seymour Benzer induced behavioral mutations in Drosophila as a “genetic scalpel” to investigate the pathways from genes to behavior».
  • Sydney Brenner

    Sydney Brenner
    «Sydney Brenner developed the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, to study the nervous system, as well as the genetics of behavior. In subsequent decades, the study of cells was transformed from descriptive cytology into molecular cell biology»
  • Edwin Southern

    Edwin Southern
    He developed «a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. The Southern Blot, as it came to be known, starts by digesting a strand of DNA into many small DNA fragments; those fragments are then separated (in a process called gel electrophoresis) based on size, placed on filter paper which “blots” the DNA fragments on to a new medium, and then chemically labeled with DNA probes; the probes then allow for identification and visualization of the DNA fragments».
  • United States Department of Energy (DoE)

    United States Department of Energy (DoE)
    «In the mid 1980s, after the development of sequencing techniques, the United States Department of Energy (DoE) originated a project to sequence the human genome. The resulting Human Genome Project (HGP) managed jointly by the DoE and the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH), utilized both existent sequencing methodologies and introduced new ones».
  • Nenad Ban and colleagues in the laboratory of Thomas Steitz.

     Nenad Ban and colleagues in the laboratory of Thomas Steitz.
    «The publication of the hammerhead and P4-6 structures, numerous major contributions to the field have been made».
  • Ada Yonath, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas Steitz

    Ada Yonath, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas Steitz
    «For their structural work on the ribosome, demonstrating the prominent role RNA structural biology has taken in modern molecular biology. The first three structures were produced using in vitro transcription, and that NMR has played a role in investigating partial components of all four structures - testaments to the indispensability of both techniques for RNA research.