• 162 BCE

    Galen of Pergamon describes the human body

    Aelius Galenus, a prominent Greek physician, surgeon as well a philosopher in the Roman Empire. He had great expertise in anatomy, surgery, pharmacology and therapeutic methods. Being illegal in Rome to dissect humans, Galen would dissect animals and treat the wounded gladiators to gain knowledge about the anatomy of the human body. Even today, practices used by Galen are promoted and recognized to be useful as well being well known.
  • Lamarck's law of inheritance is revealed

    Lamarck believed that traits changed or acquired over an individual's lifetime could be passed down to its offspring
  • The voyage of the HMS beagle

    Published by Charles Darwin, manuscripts of Darwins voyage exploring South America.
  • Alfred Russel Wallace published ideas of evolutionary processes

    Alfred Russel Wallace published ideas of evolutionary processes
    Alfred Russell Wallace was a older mentor of Darwin. The two publish a joint paper on their theory of natural selection. By 1855 he concluded that living thing evolved not understanding how till it came to him three years later that living things evolve by adapting to their environment.
  • Louis Pasteur refutes spontaneous generation

    Louis Pasteur refutes spontaneous generation
    Louis Pasteur refutes spontaneous generation with his broth experiment. This was one of the last and most important experiments disproving the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • The Origin of species

    Scientific literature by Charles Darwin- Darwin’s theory argued that organisms gradually evolve through a process he called “natural selection.”
  • The Germ Theory of Disease is published

    The Germ Theory of Disease is published
    Pasteur was able to grow the anthrax bacillus in culture.Pasteur placed a drop of blood from a sheep dying of anthrax into a sterile culture, and allowed the bacilli to grow. He repeated this process until none of the original culture remained in the final dish. The final culture produced anthrax when injected into sheep, showing that the bacillus was responsible for the disease
  • Gregor Mendel publishes works on inheritance of traits in pea plants

    Gregor Mendel publishes works on inheritance of traits in pea plants
    During this time, Mendel grew over 10,000 pea plants, keeping track of progeny number and type. Inheritance involves the passing of discrete units of inheritance, or genes, from parents to offspring.
  • Hardy and Weinberg independently develop the Hardy-Weinberg equation for determining allele frequencies in populations

    Hardy and Weinberg independently develop the Hardy-Weinberg equation for determining allele frequencies in populations
    The Hardy-weinberg equation is essentially allows geneticists to do the same thing for entire populations and was made by G.H Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg. It comes from a mathematical equation (p² + 2pq + q² = 1) describes the distribution and expression of alleles in the population. Also expresses, conditions under which allele frequencies are to be expected to change.
  • T. Hunt Morgan discovers sex-linkage

    T. Hunt Morgan discovers sex-linkage
    T.H Morgan first found out about sex linkage in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex linkage is a phenotype expression of an allele being directly tied to sex chromosomes.
  • Neils Bohr develops the Bohr model of atom structure

    Neils Bohr develops the Bohr model of atom structure
    Bohr proposed his quantezed shell model of the atom to explain how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. His starting point was to realize that classical mechanics by itself could never explain the atom's stability. He explained how electrons could jump from one orbit to another only by emitting or absorbing energy in fixed quanta. This was quite similar to the structure of the Solar System.
  • Frederick Griffith describes the process of transformation

    In a series of experiments with Diplococcus pneumonia. Using two strains of Pneumococcus, a bacteria that infects mice. Used type II-S and 11-R strains. During the course of his experiment, a living organism (bacteria) had changed in physical form.The purified extract contained Griffith's "transforming principle". Through biochemical testing, they showed it to be deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
  • Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origin of Species

    Studied the population genetics of Drosophila in the wild. Wrote Genetics and the Origin of Species.
  • Beadle and Tatum publish the 1 gene-1 enzyme hypothesis

    Beadle and Tatum's experiments are considered to be the first significant results to be called molecular biology. The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis was proposed by George W.B. and Edward L.T. in 1941. Theory states each gene is directly produced as an single enzyme. Turning consequently affects in an individual metabolic pathway.
  • Ernst Mayr develops the Biological Species Concept

    He argued for what came to be called the Biological Species Concept (BSC), that a species consists of populations of organisms that can reproduce with one another and that are reproductively isolated from other populations, though he was not the first to define "species" on the basis of reproductive compatibility
  • Jacques Cousteau father of Scuba

    Jacques Cousteau co-invented the aqua-lung which opened the doors to scuba diving.
  • Avery, MacLoed and McCarty genetic code

    By deciphering the structure of the DNA molecule, Watson and Crick provided the foundation for molecular studies of the genetic material or DNA.
  • Rosalind Franklin works with DNA “Image 51”

    Rosalind Franklin works with DNA  “Image 51”
    image of DNA taken by Raymond Gosling, working as a PhD student under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin. The photograph provided key information that was essential for developing a model of DNA
  • Hershey-Chase experiments are published

    Hershey and Chase very important finding that concluded that DNA, not protein, was the genetic material.
  • The Miller-Urey experiment

    In 1953, scientist Stanley Miller performed an experiment that may explain what occurred on primitive Earth billions of years ago. He sent an electrical charge through a flask of a chemical solution of methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water. This created organic compounds including amino acids.
  • Watson and Crick propose the double helix model of DNA structure

    Watson and Crick propose the double helix model of DNA structure
    The double helix, the twisted-ladder structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Their discovery yielded ground-breaking insights into the genetic code and protein synthesis.
  • Meselson and Stahl work with DNA replication

    The double helix, whose form has become the icon of biological research.The model did not gain wide acceptance until the publication of another paper 5 years later. Scientific Revolution of this crowning achievement and outlines its subsequent impact on four decades of DNA replication, recombination, and repair research.
  • Nirenberg cracks the genetic code

    Nirenberg cracks the genetic code
    In 1961 Marshall Nirenberg, a young biochemist discovered the first "triplet"—a sequence of three bases of DNA. Nirenberg's series of key experiments, carried out initially with German scientist Johann Matthaei, employed test-tube techniques.irenberg and Khorana were awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize, with Robert W. Holley, "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis."
  • Endosymbiosis is described by Lynn Margulis

    The Endosymbiotic Theory was first proposed by Lynn Margulis in the 1960’s. Although now accepted as a well-supported theory, both she and the theory were ridiculed by mainstream biologists for a number of years. Similarities between prokaryotes and organelles, together with their appearance in the fossil record, could best be explained by "endo-symbiosis".
  • CRISPr/CAS 9 is identified and described

    It's discovery caused a revolution in science. It was first discovered in the 1970s. Becoming a well identified piece of technology that allows to enable geneticists as well medical researchers to edits parts of the genome. This is done by removing or adding/ altering parts of the DNA sequence. Being the simplest and flexible to a precise method.
  • Barbara McClintock describes transposons

    Barbara McClintock describes transposons
    Transposons constitute more than 65% of our genomes and approximately 85% of the maize genome.McClintock received a number of prestigious awards, including the 1970 National Medal of Science and culminating in an unshared Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983.
  • Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes “Nothing in Science Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.”

    Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes “Nothing in Science Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.”
    Anti-evolutionists mistake, or pretend to mistake, these disagreements as indications of dubiousness of the entire doctrine of evolution. Evolution is a light which illuminates all facts, a trajectory which all lines of though must follow this is what evolution is.Teilhard was a creationist, but one who understood that the Creation is realized in this world by means of evolution.
  • Deep sea hydrothermal vents and associated life around them are discovered

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents and associated life around them are discovered
    Discovering deep sea hydrothermal vents they also realized that an entirely unique ecosystem, involving hundreds of new species existed around the vents. They can be found near active volcano sites, places where tectonic plates move, and etc...
  • The Sanger Technique is developed

    sequencing based upon the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication.
  • Australopithicus afarensis  nicknamed “lucy” fossil discovered

    Australopithecus afarensis-nicknamed-"Lucy", a partial skeleton discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson in Hadar, Ethiopia. The 3.2-million-year-old ape "Lucy" was the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton ever found.
  • Spliceosomes were discovered and described

    The spliceosome consists of five small ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Each snRNP is composed of multiple proteins and a single small nuclear RNA molecule or snRNA. The snRNPs are identified by which snRNA (U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, or U6) each contains. Splicing of pre-mRNA nuclear introns takes place within the spliceosome
  • Kary Mullis develops Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Polymerase chain reaction defines as a technique that grants scientist to take on millions of duplicates from a scarce sample of DNA. The technique developed by Kary Mullis who in which was a Nobel prize winner as he was working as a chemist. With the technique that was being used in hand allowed the use of thermocycling to quickly copy segments of DNA.
  • Tommie Lee Andrews is convicted of rape

     Tommie Lee Andrews is convicted of rape
    Serial rapist Tommie Lee Andrews, first defendant convicted in the United States using DNA evidence. With the police sending to semen and blood samples over to a New York lab since they have came into conclusion that both cases do share some similarities. The lab will then look over the DNA and compare them to the crime scene samples.
  • The Innocence Project is founded

    The Innocence Projects provide representation and/or investigative assistance to prison inmates who claim to be innocent of the crimes for which they were convicted. It was founded in 1992 by Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld.
  • Dolly the sheep is cloned

    Dolly the sheep is cloned
    Dolly the sheep, as the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, is by far the world's most famous clone. To produce Dolly, scientists used an udder cell from a six-year-old Finn Dorset white sheep. They had to find a way to 'reprogram' the udder cells - to keep them alive but stop them growing – which they achieved by altering the growth medium.
  • discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis

    discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    Discovered by Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye in 2001 in Chad, in the southern Sahara desert
  • human genome

    human genome
    The human genome project was finish 2 1/2 years early under budget. The purpose of the project to undertaken to sequence all of our DNA and locate within it all of the functionally important sequences, such as genes.
  • Homo denisova fossil discovered

    Found a piece of finger bone. It was from a 50,000 year old young girl. The figure found in Denisova Cave in Altai Krai, Russia, a region also inhabited at about the same time by Neanderthals and perhaps modern humans
  • Richard L Bible is executed

    Bible's trial in 1990 was the first Arizona case to use what was then brand-new DNA technology. A newspaper article at the time theorized that someday DNA evidence could become a regular part of courtroom arguments, although Bible's appellant lawyers tried to denounce it as junk science. Read more: