Lamarck is best known for his Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics, first presented in 1801. If an organism changes during life in order to adapt to its environment, those changes are passed on to its offspring. He said that change is made by what the organisms want or need. http://necsi.edu/projects/evolution/lamarck/lamarck/lamarck_lamarck.html
The Voyage of the HMS Beagle
Charles Darwin received an invitation to join the HMS Beagle as ship's naturalist for a trip around the world. For five years, the Beagle surveyed the coast of South America, which left Darwin free to explore the continent and islands, including the Galapagos. He wrote a ton of notebooks with careful observations on animals, plants and geology, and collected thousands of specimens, which he took home for more studies. http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/darwin/a-trip-around-the-world/
A scientific breakthrough by Charles Darwin was published in England. Darwin’s theory argued that organisms gradually evolve through a process he called “natural selection.” In natural selection, organisms with genetic variations that suit their environment tend to propagate more descendants than organisms of the same species that lack the variation, influencing the overall genetic makeup of the species. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/origin-of-species-is-published-2
Gregor Mendel's works on inheritance of traits in pea plants
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is the fundamental concept in population genetics. It is a mathematical equation describing the distribution and expression of alleles in a population, and it expresses the conditions under which allele frequencies are expected to change. http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/synth_2.htm
Neils Bohr develops the Bohr model of atom structure
Bohr proposed his quantized shell model of the atom to explain how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. The motion of the electrons in the Rutherford model was unstable because according to classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory, any charged particle moving on a curved path emits electromagnetic radiation. http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/bohr_atom.html
Frederick Griffith describes the process of transformation
Frederick Griffith was searching for a vaccine against Spanish flu and was using two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. During the process he discovered that gene transfer took place between two different bacterial strains.
He published a book to be said as one of the most important works of the modern evolutionary synthesis. The book was popular in work of population genetics to other biologists, and influenced their appreciation for the genetic basis of evolution.
Beadle and Tatum publish the 1 gene-1 enzyme hypothesis
The One gene–one enzyme hypothesis was an idea advanced that each gene controls the synthesis or activity of a single enzyme. Their experiments involved first exposing the mold to mutation-inducing X-rays and then culturing it in a minimal growth medium that contained only the basic nutrients that the wild-type, or nonmutated, strain of mold needed to survive.
Avery, Macleod, and McCarty played a huge role that DNA was the carrier of genetic information by working with a bacteria that caused pneumonia. Which showed that DNA carries a lot of genetic information everywhere.
In the 1950's, biochemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey did an experiment which showed that several organic compounds could be formed by simulating the conditions of Earth's early atmosphere. They designed an apparatus which held a mix of gases similar to those found in Earth's early atmosphere over a pool of water, representing Earth's early ocean.
Rosalind Franklin works with DNA and X-Ray crystallography and develops “Image 51”
She was the original person who found out that DNA was shaped as a double helix using the X-ray crystallography. But Watson and Crick came in after she died and took all the credit from her.
The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments done in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that confirmed that DNA is genetic material. DNA had been known to biologists since 1869. A lot scientists still assumed at the time that proteins carried the information for inheritance because DNA appeared simpler than proteins. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hershey%E2%80%93Chase_experiment
Watson and Crick propose the double helix model of DNA structure
Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes “Nothing in Science Makes Sense Except in the Light of evolution"
Theodosius Dobzhansky talks about the big things about evolution and how it sometime does not really make sense. As you read what he thinks about evolution you see that there are only a few things that make him think about evolution. A major thing would be that dinosaurs do not really look like a lot of animals from today but you just need to try and understand it. http://www.phil.vt.edu/Burian/NothingInBiolChFina.pdf
Australopithicus afarensis "Lucy"
Australopithecus afarensis is one of the longest-lived and best-known early human species. They grew rather fast which meant that their social skills weren't the best and they didn't have much of a child hood because of the fast growth rate they went through. As in looks they looked pretty similar to chimpanzees, however they had some similarities to human as well as in the jaw bone and cheek bones.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis is one of the oldest known species in the human family tree. This species lived between 7 and 6 million years ago in West-Central Africa. They walked because it might have helped them survive in the crazy habitats they lived in at the time. We only have head material from Sahelanthropus. Studies show this species had a combination of ape-like and human-like features. http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/sahelanthropus-tchadensis
Spliceosomes were discovered and described
A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The spliceosome is assembled from snRNAs and protein complexes. The spliceosome removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA, a type of primary transcript.