Genetics Timeline Assignment

  • Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel
    -tested about 29,000 bean plants between 1856 and 1863[12]
    -scientist and Augustinian friar,Heinzendorf bei Odrau, Austrian Empire[12]
    -use peas for his experiments and cross-fertilize with different characteristics[12]
    -came up with Law of Segregation, established that there are dominant and recessive traits, Law of Independent Assortment, established that traits were passed on independently of other traits[12]
    -demostrated that inheritance traits in pea plants follows particular patterns[12]
  • Hugo de Vries

    Hugo de Vries
    -began genetic experiments with plants in 1880,published on 1900, retired in 1918[13]
    -Dutch botanist, geneticist, Haarlem, Netherlands[13]
    -conduct experiments hybridising varieties of multiple plant species using laws of dominance and excessiveness, segregation and independent assortment to explain 3:1 ratio [14]
    -suggest concept of genes, rediscovered the laws of heredity[13]
    -Darwin Medal in 1906,Linnean Medal in 1929 [14]
  • Walter S Sutton

    Walter S Sutton
    -start development with chromosome pairs in 1903 to 1915[24]
    -American geneticist and physician, Utica, NY[24]
    -enrolled in University of Kansas in biology, received both Bachelor and Master degrees by 1901[24]
    -did cytological study work with grasshoppers showed that chromosomes occur in matched pairs of maternal and paternal chromosomes[25]
    -theorize Mendelian laws of inheritance can apply to chromosomes at the cellular level of organisms[25]
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

    Thomas Hunt Morgan
    -work with Drosophila at 1904 at the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena until 1945[29]
    -American biologist, geneticist,Lexington, Kentucky[29]
    - educated in University of Kentucky, took B.S degree, received PhD in zoology in 1890[29]
    -use test cross on fruit flies and identified genotypic and phenotypic ratio between flies,found out that trait followed patterns of sex chromosome inheritance[29]
    -demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes[29]
    -Darwin Medal, Nobel Prize 1933[29
  • Martha Chase with Hershey

    Martha Chase with Hershey
    -worked as a laboratory assistant in 1952 to Alfred Hershey at Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory and ended career in science in 1960[27]
    -American geneticist, born in Cleveland Heights, Ohio[27]
    -bachelor's degree from The College of Wooster and PhD from the University of Southern California[27]
    -Same Scientific Contribution and Model as Hershey
  • Alfred Hershey with Chase

    Alfred Hershey with Chase
    • Department of Bacteriology, worked with bacteriophage from 1940 to 1952[26] -American bacteriologist,Owosso, Michigan[26] -add isotopes in the bacteriophage, for progeny to infect unlabeled bacteria using centrifugation to separate the phage coat -bacteria are lysed to release phage progeny, the one represented DNA remained labelled, while the progeny represented protein were unlabeled[26] -confirms that DNA is the genetic material, not protein[26] -Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1969[26]
  • Edward Tatum with Beadle

    Edward Tatum with Beadle
    -work as Research Associate,became professor of biochemistry [18]
    -American geneticist,Boulder, Colorado[18]
    -educated at UoC and Wisconsin, A.B in chemistry,M.S in microbiology,and PhD degree in biochemistry[18]
    -crossed potential mutants with the non-irradiated ,mutant spores would not replicate without arginine
    -developed four strains of arginine-dependent Neurospora, each have lost use of a specific gene that ordinarily facilitates one particular enzyme[18]
    -Nobel Prize in Physiology[18]
  • George Beadle with Tatum

    George Beadle with Tatum
    -work in 1936 with Tatum as Professor of Biology and Chairman of the Division of Biology until 1961[19]
    -American scientist,Wahoo, Nebraska[19]
    - showing that genes control individual steps in metabolism. [20]
    -received Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1958 and many other awards[19]
    Scientific Model same as Tatum
  • Oswald Avery

    Oswald Avery
    -research at Hoagland Laboratory in 1907, A-M-M experiment in 1944[23]
    -Canadian born American physician[23]
    -AB in 1900 from Colgate University, M.D from the Columbia College[23]
    -extracted components from heated S bacteria, then mixed with R bacteria
    -R bacteria transformed each time until DNA was extracted from S cells, concluded that DNA was the transforming principle[23]
    -discovered that DNA is the material genes and chromosome are made
    -award from Royal Society of London and others[23]
  • Animal Cloning

    Animal Cloning
    -clones are organisms with identical genetic material[38]
    -1951, first successful clone of a frog egg was created, though some early attempts at cloning in the 1800's were made. [38]
    -first cloned mammal, a sheep was born on 5th July 1996 by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin­ Institute[38]
    - nucleus-egg combination was stimulated with electricity to fuse the two and to stimulate cell division[38]
    -new cell divided and was placed in the uterus of a blackface ewe to develop[38]
  • Erwin Chargaff

    Erwin Chargaff
    -work in1935 as a research associate at Columbia University, withdrawnn 1962[17]
    -Austrian biochemist, Czernowitz, Austria-Hungary[17]
    -studied chemistry in Vienna,doctorate in 1924, research fellow in Yale[17]
    -use paper chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, proved the tetranucleotide hypothesis false,shown and number of guanine units is equal to the number of cytosine[17]
    -dissevered two rules lead to the discovery of DNA structure[17]
    -Pasteur Medal,National Medal of Science[17]
  • Rosalind Franklin

    Rosalind Franklin
    -work in King's College, 1951on x-ray diffraction of proteins, then worked with DNA until 1953[16]
    -British biophysicist and x-ray crystallographer[16]
    -Enrolled in Newnham College,then three years at Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiquies de L'Etat to learn x-ray diffraction[16]
    -uses x-ray diffraction techniques to the structure of DNA with new fine focus x-ray tube and micro camera
    -Franklin's sphotograph 51of DNA confirmed DNA structure[16]
    -helped with the discovery of double helix[16]
  • Francis Crick with Watson

    Francis Crick with Watson
    -member of the Medical Research Council Unit since 1949 and worked in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge until 1962[31]
    -English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist[31]
    -studied physics in University College, and obtained B.Sc in 1937, PhD in 1954[31]
    -Scientific Model and Contribution same as Watson
  • James Watson with Crick

    James Watson with Crick
    -work in the Cavendish Laboratory in 1951[30]
    -American molecular biologist,B.Sc degree in zoology at UoC, received,PhD in Indiana University[30]
    -using data from previous experimenters, suggest the amount of A is the amount of T, the amount of C is the amount of G, proven by Rosalind's photo with regular pattern at 34 angstroms[32]
    -co-discovered the structure of DNA with Crick[30]
    -Lasker Foundation Award, Research Corporation Award, Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine[30]
  • Matthew Meselson with Stahl

    Matthew Meselson with Stahl
    -start in 1960at Harvard faculty[21]
    -American geneticist,Denver, Colorado[21]
    -grow Escherichia coli with N-15, then N-14 and extract DNA with density centrifugation[21]
    -the hybrid DNA are shown that one parental strand and one that had been newly synthesized[21]
    -the double helix splits into two, each of the single strands acting as a template for the synthesis of a complementry strand[21]
    -shown DNA is replicated by a semi conservative mechanism[21]
    -Lasker Award,Mendel Medal[21]
  • Franklin Stahl with Meselson

    Franklin Stahl with Meselson
    -collaboration with Matthew Meselson in 1955,undertook analyses of mutation,genetic recombination andDNA replication in Escherichia coli[22]
    -American molecular biologist and geneticist[22]
    -AB degree in biology from Harvard College in 1951, received PhD in biology in 1956[22]
    - conducted the Meselson-Stahl experiment showing that DNA is replicated by a semi conservative mechanism[22]
    -awarded two Guggenheim Fellowships, a MacArthur Fellowship
    Scientific Model is same as Meselson
  • Bioinformatics

    • early contributor to bioinformatics was Elvin A. Kabat[35] -is the field that develops and improves upon methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data[35] -develop software tools to generate useful biological knowledge[35] -bioinformatics techniques such as image and signal processing allow extraction of useful results from large amounts of raw data, aids in sequencing and annotating genomes and their observed mutations[35]
  • Alec Jeffreys

    Alec Jeffreys
    -starts in University of Leicester,later Professor of Genetics[10]
    -British geneticist, Oxford,England[11]
    -Oxford University for biochemistry, PhD in 1975[11]
    -develop process to isolate the "mini satellites" of the human DNA, through x-ray films[11]
    -discovered that each individual all varies greatly and the pattern appeared to be unique[11]
    -developed techniques for DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling[11]
    -Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research,Great Briton Award in 2006[11]
  • Kary Mullis

    Kary Mullis
    -worked as chemist for Cetus Corp in 1983 until 1986[15]
    -American biochemist, Lenoir, North Carolina[15]
    -Bachelor of Science in chemistry at Georgia Institute of Technology,PhD in biochemistry from the UoC[15]
    -crated method of amplifying DNA using a pair of primers to bracket the desired DNA sequence and copy it using DNA polymerase[15]
    -recognized for his polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique[15]
    -Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Japan Prize in 1993 [15]
  • Lap Chee Tsui

    Lap Chee Tsui
    -start in 1981at Hospital of Sick Children, UOFT[6]
    -born Shanghai, received bachelor and master's degrees at University of Hong Kong,PhD from University of Pittsburgh[7]
    -use chromosome jumping by cutting DNA into fragments with enzymes to determine chromosome involved with cystic fibrosis[8]
    -identified defective gene that causes cystic fibrosis and the characterization of chromosome 7[9]
    -Distinguished Scientist Award,XII Sanremo International Award for Genetic Research, CMA Medal of Honour
  • Christine Bear

    Christine Bear
    -work is ongoing at SickKids from 1992[28]
    -Canadian scientist, born in Toronto, received bachelor and PhD at University of Toronto, and master at McGill University[28]
    -developed novel methods and discovered that the protein produced by the CFTR gene functions as a pore in the cell membrane which mediates chloride flux and accounts for normal fluid transport in airways, pancreatic ducts, gastrointestinal tract and the sweat ducts[28]
    -contributed in research of Cystic Fibrosis[28]
  • Genetically Modified Food

    Genetically Modified Food
    -are foods derived from genetically modified organisms specifically, genetically modified crops[33]
    -GMOs have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques, are much more precise than mutagenesis [330
    -other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding and somaclonal variation.
    -Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato[33]
  • Human Cloning

    Human Cloning
    • the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human[37]
    • two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning[37] -scientist Richard Seed had announced intentions to set up a Human Clone Clinic in 1998[37] -scientists reprogrammed an adult human egg cell to an embryonic state using cloning technology and created a self-reproducing line of embryonic stem cells from the developing embryo in 2011[37]
  • Francis Collins in Human Genome Project

    Francis Collins in Human Genome Project
    -work in1978 as chief residency at North Carolina Memorial Hospital, currently Director of the National Center for Human Genome Research in 1993[1]
    -American physician-geneticist, Staunton, Virginia[1]
    -B.S in chemistry in 1970 at the University of Virginia,PhD in physical chemistry in 1974, M.D in1977[1]
    -completed Human Genome Project as leader[2]
    -received Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2007,National Medal of Science in 2008[2]
    Scientific model same Venter
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    -completed in 2003,was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health[34]
    Project goals were to
    -identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA[34]
    -determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA[34]
    -store this information in databases[34]
    -improve tools for data analysis[34]
    -transfer related technologies to the private sector[34]
  • Craig Venter in Human Genome Project

    Craig Venter in Human Genome Project
    -work in1982 on sections of NIH,currently president of J. Craig Venter Institute,on synthetic genomics [3]
    -American biochemist-geneticist,Salt Lake City, UT[3]
    -BS degree in biochemistry ,PhD degree in physiology from the University of California [3]
    -completed the genetic linkage map of the human genome using the hierarchical shotgun approach, by braking the genome into large chunks, then mapped to chromosomes before selected for sequencing[4]
    -National Medal of Science,Kistler Prize[5]
  • Stem Cell Research

    Stem Cell Research
    -suggest that these embryonic stem cells are capable of becoming almost any of the specialised cells in the body and therefore have the potential to generate replacement cells for a broad array of tissues and organ[36]
    - in 1998 James Thomson, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, removed cells from spare embryos at fertility clinics and grew them in the laboratory[36]
    -Embryonic stem cell research has yet to yield any clinical trials[36]