Major Innovations of Biotechnology

By RWasie
  • Discovery/Terminology of 'Cells'

    Discovery/Terminology of 'Cells'
    Robert Hooke first dubbed the term 'cells' to living organisms, and Anton Van Leeuwenhook observed the first microorganisms because of the inventions of the microscope
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    Biotechnology throughout the ages
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    BioTech Advances

  • Inheritance Traits

    Inheritance Traits
    Gregor Mendel, a monk working with pea plants, discovered the laws of inheritances and traits that allowed people to predict the outcome of crossing plants (or mammals) with certain traits
  • Science of Microbiology

    Science of Microbiology
    Louis Pastuer desrcibes the science of fermentation, including beer, wine making, and proposed the germ theory claiming that microorganisms were responsible for infectious diseases and spoilage. (he also developed the pastuerization process)
  • The first beginnings of the discovery of DNA

    The first beginnings of the discovery of DNA
    Johann Mieschler found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages. This later led scientists to believe that DNA might be the inheritable material in an organism
  • Chromosomes/Genes

    Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were found on chromosomes
  • Genetic Material-Bacteria

    Genetic Material-Bacteria
    Fred Griffith, using mice proved that genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another
  • Discovery of penicillin

    Discovery of penicillin
    Sir Alexander Fleming discovered and isolated penicillin from mold, and his discovery changed the outcome of casualty rates in wars and modern medicine as we know it
  • DNA in adenine and thymine

    DNA in adenine and thymine
    Chargaff showed that in DNA the number of unites of adenine equalled those of thymine and the number of units of cytosine equalled those of guanine
  • DNA is Heriditary material

    DNA is Heriditary material
    Beadle, Tatum proposed that 'one gene produces one enzyme' hypothesis. In 1944, Avery, McCarty, and McLeod established that indeed DNA was the hereditary material
  • Viruses Replicate

    Viruses Replicate
    Using the famous 'Blender expiriment', Hershey and Chase proved viruses replicated using DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the heridetary material
  • DNA is a double helix

    DNA is a double helix
    Roaslind Franklin and Maurice WIlkins established through X-Ray crytalliography that DNA was indeed a double helix
  • Structure of DNA

    Structure of DNA
    Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA
  • Disccovery of Plasmid DNA

    Disccovery of Plasmid DNA
    Hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria
  • Gene Expression

    Gene Expression
    Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNA
  • Bacterial Restriction enzymes

    Bacterial Restriction enzymes
    Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA
  • Codons/TRiplet Code in DNA

    Codons/TRiplet Code in DNA
    Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 codons (the triplet code of 3 bases in DNA) that code for the 20 amino acids making up proteins
  • Isolation od DNA plasmids

    Isolation od DNA plasmids
    DNA plasmids were isolated and purified by Vinograd
  • Tranformation of E Coli

    Tranformation of E Coli
    Madel and Higa were reposinsible for the first transformation of the bacterium E Coli
  • Cloning

    Cloning expiriments were conducted by Boyer and Cohen
  • Genetech

    Genetech, the world's first genetic engineering company is founded
  • Recombinant DNA

    Recombinant DNA
    140 scientists met up to draw up guidelines for work with recombnant DNA in microorganisms. Paul Berg was a key organiser.
  • Sequecing DNA

    Sequecing DNA
    Sanger and Gilbert foudn a way to sequence DNA. Given an unknown piece of DNA, they were able to read the correct order of bases of adenine, ctyosine, guanine, and thymine.
  • Synthetic insulin

    Synthetic insulin
    Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E Coli
  • RFLP

    Botstein found that one could be identified though the pattern made by ones DNA though a digest of different enzymes. (The DNA fingerprint)
  • In Vitro Fertilization

    In Vitro Fertilization
    Louise Joy Brown was born, the first human baby resulting from invitro fertilization.
  • US Supreme Court Rules That Genetic Life Forms CAN be patented

    US Supreme Court Rules That Genetic Life Forms CAN be patented
    The US Supreme Court declared that genetically modified life forms can be patented, starting in a huge startup of biotech companies
  • First Transgenic Animals

    First Transgenic Animals
    Ohio University scientists made the first transgenic animal
  • Insulin

    Eli Lily company placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria
  • Gene Transfer in Plants

    Gene Transfer in Plants
    Schnell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch transformed plants with Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Kary Mullis invented PCR to amplify DNA in the lab
  • RFLP

    Jeffries applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases
  • Automated Florescence Sequencer invention

    An automated florescence sequencer was invented speding up the labor intense proess
  • Gene Gun

    Gene Gun
    Genes were moved into an organism through the use of a gene gun
  • NIH

    The NIH revised safety guidelines for recombinant DNA to include plants grown in greenhosues and animals raised in barns
  • RNA Interference

    RNA Interference
    Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, silencing of genes, in the worm C elegans
  • MAb Technology

    MAb Technology
    Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology
  • Yeast Artifical Chromosomes

    Yeast Artifical Chromosomes
    Maynard Olson and colleagues at Washington UNiversity invented yeast artifical chromosomes or YACs which are expression vectors for large proteins.
  • Dolly the sheep

    Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of an ewe at the Roslin Institute in Scotland
  • DNA chip

    DNA chip
    DNA microarray (DNA chip) technology, looking at the expression of all the genes of an organism at one time on a microscope slide or silicon chip, was developed
  • automated DNA sequencer

    automated DNA sequencer
    Dabari and Garner invented an automated DNA sequencer that had a capability of sequencing 76,800 base pairs per hour, 5 to 30x faster than existing sequencers. Technology like this greatly sped up the Human genome project.
  • Riboswitch discovery

     Riboswitch discovery
    ROn Breaker coined the term riboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity and therefore gene expression
  • HUman Genome Project

    HUman Genome Project
    Announcement of the Human Genome project (initated in 1990) by Francis Collins and Craig Venter. The project provided the abiity to find genes and give rise to the sequencing of the other genomes.