Yogurt and cheese made with lactic acid-producing bacteria by various cultures
The discovery of bacteria and protozoa
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek discovers and describes bacteria and protozoa
First Viral Vaccine
Edward Jenner uses first viral vaccine to inoculate a child from smallpox
Discovery of Bacterial Origin of Fermentation
Louis Pasteur discovered the bacterial origin of fermentation
Laws of Inheritance is discovered
Gregor Mendel discovers the laws of inheritance
Technique for staining bacteria is created
Robert Koch develops a technique for staining bacteria for identification
Vaccines for cholera and anthrax is created
Louis Pasteur develops vaccines against bacteria that cause cholera and anthrax in chickens
First Rabies Vaccine is created
Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed the first rabies vaccine and use it on Joseph Meister
The word 'Biotechnology' is used/created
Karl Ereky, a Hungarian agricultural engineer, first uses the world biotechnology.
Creation of the first Antibiotic
Alexander Fleming notices that a certain mold could stop the duplication of bacteria. Leading to the first antibiotic:penicillin
DNA is discovered
James D. Watson and Francis Crick describe the structure of DNA
DNA between humans and chimpanzees and gorillas is discovered to be similar
The DNA composition of chimpanzees and gorillas is discovered to be 99% similar to that of humans
First Successful recombination DNA Experiment
Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment, using bacterial genes
Cohen and Boyer recieve a patent for gene cloning
The U.S. patent for gene cloning is awarded to Cohen and Boyer
Mice are Cloned
Scientists in Switzerland clone mice. The first transgenic animals are produced by transferring genes from other animals into mice.
Humulin is the First Biotech drug Approved by the FDA
Humulin, Genentech’s human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria for the treatment of diabetes, is the first biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration
PCR is created
The Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) technique is formulated by Kary B. Mullis
First Approved Gene Therapy Treatment
The first federally approved gene therapy treatment is performed successfully by William French Anderson, on a young girl who suffered from an immune disorder.
Flavr Savr tomato is approved
The United States Food and Drug Administration approved the first DM food: “Flavr Savr” tomato, invented by Monsanto
The First Hepatitis A Vaccine is Developed
The first vaccine for hepatitis A is developed. The NIH, the U.S. Army and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are significantly involved in the development and clinical testing of the vaccine.
The GeneChip is developed
The Department of Biochemistry at Stanford University and Affymetrix develop the GeneChip, a small glass or silica microchip that contains thousands of individual genes that can be analyzed simultaneously.
First Mammal is Cloned
British scientists, led by Ian Wilmut from the Roslin Institute, report cloning Dolly the sheep using DNA from two adult sheep cells.
The First Artificial Chromosome is Created
The first human artificial chromosome is created. A combination of natural and synthetic DNA is used to create a genetic cassette that can potentially be customized and used in gene therapy.
Human skin is produced for the first time in the lab.
In Japan, two research teams culture embryonic stem cells, which are used to regenerate tissue. From there the teams and the lead scientist Dr Takashi Tsuji, cultivated human skin.
Rough Draft of the Human Genome Project is Completed
Completion of a “rough draft” of the human genome in the Human Genome Project led by Francis Sellers Collins
Rice became the first to crop to have its genome decoded
Rice becomes the first crop to have its genome decoded. This experiment was conducted by various scientists from Japan, Korea, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States
The Human Genome Project is completed
The Department of Energy (DOE) and their partners in the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium announced that The Human Genome project is completed, providing information on the locations and sequence of human genes on all 46 chromosomes.
First Nanoradio is Discovered
The first Nanoradio is described by Alex Zettl
"Kibo" is launched
Japanese astronomers launched the first Medical Experiment Module called “Kibo”, to be used on the International Space Station
First Pacemaker is Created
Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute uses modified SAAN heart genes to create the first viral pacemaker in guinea pigs, now known as iSANs
Federal Funding for Research on Embryonic Stem Cells is freed up
U.S. President Barack Obama signs executive order freeing up federal funding for broader research on embryonic stem cells. Researchers identify three new genes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Geron initiates the first FDA approved clinical trial using embryonic stem cells.
The First Cord Blood Therapy is Approved
FDA approves the first cord blood therapy to be used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedures in patients with disorders affecting the hematopoietic (blood forming) system.