Friedrich Miescher isolates DNA for the first time. He studied the Chemistry of cells. His studing led him to the discovery of the nuclein in the cell.
Walter Flemming was one of the first cytologists and the first to detail how chromosomes move during mitosis (cell divison). He developed a way to stain chromosomes to observe them clearly.
Ultimately, Flemming described the whole process of mitosis.
Orderly Inheritance of Disease Observed
Archibald Garrod observes that the disease alkaptonuria is inherited. scientists isolated a gene from the region, which they called HGO. A variety of mutations in the HGO gene can cause alkaptonuria;
The Word Gene
Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian units of heredity. He also made the distinction between the outward appearance of an individual phenotype and its genetic traits.
Using fruit flies as a model organism, Thomas Hunt Morgan and his group at Columbia University showed that genes, strung on chromosomes, are the units of heredity.
One Gene, One Enzyme
George Beadle and Edward Tatum, did experiments on the red bread mold Neurospora crassa. It showed that genes act by regulating distinct chemical events.
X-ray Diffraction of DNA
William Astbury, a British scientist, obtained the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA.The X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA must have a regular, periodic structure.
DNA is "Transforming Principle"
Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty showed that DNA can transform the properties of cells, clarifying the chemical nature of genes. Griffith had discovered that he could convert the R strain into the virulent S strain.
Genes are Made of DNA
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase provided strong support for the idea that genes are made of DNA.
Semiconservative Replication of DNA
Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl show that DNA replicates with each strand in a DNA molecule from the parent generation pairing with a new strand in the daughter generation.
Chromosome Abnormalities Identified
Professor Jerome Lejeune and his colleagues discovered that Down syndrome is caused by trisomy 21. Whichis having extra Chromosomes.
Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob, and Matthew Meselson discovered that mRNA is the molecule that takes information from DNA in the nucleus to the protein-making in the cytoplasm.
Sanger and his colleagues, Maxam and Gilbert developed rapid DNA sequencing methods. Sanger developed a rapid DNA sequencing method.
First Genetic Engineering Company
The first genetic engineering company was created by Genentech, It was founded in 1976. The company produced the first human protein in a bacterium.
GenBank Database Formed
GenBank genetic sequence database, was formed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Scientists submit DNA sequence data from organisms to GenBank; researchers retrieve and analyze the data in the archive.
First Human Genetic Map
The first comprehensive genetic map of human chromosomes was based on 400 variations in DNA sequence that can be observed by digesting DNA with restriction enzymes.
The DOE and NIH set up an agreement on how to share resources and release data to the community of researchers. This began a pattern, of rapidly sharing data produced over the course of the HGP.
Microbial Genome Project
The DOE began a Microbial Genome Program in late 1994 to sequence the genomes of some bacteria.The program strives to better understand the bountiful microbial resources on Earth.Organziations around the world have worked to decipher the genomes of dozens of microorganisms.
Two Microbial Genomes Sequenced
The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first complete genome. Researchers t sequenced the smallest known genome, of the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium.
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Khorana and Severo Ochoa and their colleagues elucidated the genetic code showing how nucleic acids with their 4-letter alphabet determine the order of the 20 kinds of amino acids in proteins.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act outlawed genetic discrimination in group health insurance plans.It guarantee the "portability" of health insurance, allowing workers to maintain insurance coverage if they lose or leave their jobs.
Committee on Genetic Testing
the Secretary of Health and Human Service’s Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing was formed. The Task Force on Genetic Testing and the Joint NIH/DOE Committee to Evaluate the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program of the HGP had recommended that the committee be formed.
SNP Initiative Begins
A SNP, short for single nucleotide polymorphism, is a difference in a single chemical subunit of DNA . SNPs can be used as the markers on a genetic map.
Human Genome Project scientists led by German and Japanese teams described the finished genome sequence of human chromosome 21, the second human chromosome to be fully sequenced. An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome.
FDA Approves Genetics-based Drug
The Food and Drug Administration approved an oral medication called Gleevec to treat patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Genetic Variation Associated with Prostate Cancer
Researchers identified a gene on chromosome 1 associated with a hereditary form of prostate cancer.The newly identified gene on chromosome 1 is called ribonuclease.
First National DNA Day
The United States Congress passed a resolution setting aside April 25th as National DNA Day.. The date was chosen to mark the 50th anniversary of Francis Crick and James Watson for describing the double helix model of DNA.