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Biotechnology Timeline, Nika and Michael p3

  • First Vaccine: 1796

    First Vaccine: 1796
    Edward Jenner discovered the process of vaccinaton by injecting small boy with cowpox and then trying to reinfect him with smallpox. The boy recovered from the weaker cowpox infection and became immune to the smallpox. This process is now replicated throughout patients around the world and preventing them from getting diseases such as chickenpocs, and HPV. Vaccines have been an important part of biotechnology and has impacted the world we live in today. (Nika)
  • Acient (pre-1800)

    In the early 1800s, domestication of wild animals was the beginning of observation, implications, and applications of animal breeding. This was the initial period of evolution of farming, which led to another needs like the development of methods for food preservation and storage. In ancient times people used cold caves to preserve food for long-term storage. It also made the way for the evolution of pots to storage utilities used to preserve foods till this day.
  • Proteins are DIscovered: 1813

    Proteins are discovered by Swedist chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius. Scientists are now aware of what molecules make up all of the components of the human body.
  • 1822-1884: Mendels Theory

    Mendel proposed that invisible internal units of information account for observable traits, and that these ‘factors’ -later called as genes, which are passed from one generation to the next.
  • 1865: Heredity

    Gregor Mendel, the father of modern genetics, develops his laws of inheritance. This taught scientists how genes are passed on from parents to offspring and the patterns they bring.
  • 1913: Linear Map of Genes

    American genetist, Alfred Sturevant makes the first linear gene map for Drosophila, the common fruit fly.
  • The term biotechnology was used for the first time by Karl Erkey, a Hungarian Engineer, in 1919.

    The term biotechnology was used for the first time by Karl Erkey, a Hungarian Engineer, in 1919.
  • Insulin is discovered: 1922

    Insulin is discovered: 1922
    In Toronto, Dr. Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best discover insulin as a treatment for diabetes.
  • DNA and Heredity are Linked: 1944

    DNA and Heredity are Linked: 1944
    Avery, McLeod, and McCarty demonstrate DNA is the hereditary material within cells. This paved the way for how DNA and genetics are studies together.
  • 1944: DNA and Hereditary Linked

    Avery, McLeod, and McCarty demonstrate DNA is the hereditary material within cells.
  • DNA: A Double Helix

    In 1953, JD Watson and FHC Crick for the first time cleared the air around the DNA as a genetic material. They declared a structural model of DNA, known as a ¨Double Helix.¨ This paved the way for genetic by showing how DNA is actually replicated because of its structure.
  • 1956: DNA Polymerase is Discovered

    Scientists discover DNA polymerase which ultimately leads to an understanding of how DNA is replicated. The replicated of DNA is a major step in science that has helped scientists understand more about genetics.
  • 1956: First Bone Marrow Transplant

    First human bone marrow transplant is performed in the USA, paving the road verious new transplants in the future.
  • Step Cell Discovery

    Canadians James Till and Ernest McCulloch establish the concept of stem cells and set the framework in which stem cells are studied today
  • Genetic Code

    Genetic Code
    irenberg, Khorana and Holley determine the genetic code - identifying the specific codons that determine the 20 amino acid units that make all proteins molecules.
  • Nobel Prize for Plant Breeding

    Nobel Prize for Plant Breeding
    Norman Borlaug becomes the first plant breeder to win the Nobel Prize for his work on new wheat varieties that increased crop yield by 70%.
  • Recombinant DNA: 1972

    Recombinant DNA: 1972
    Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer develop recombinant DNA technology. This is considered to be the birth of modern biotechnology!
  • The Production of Antibodies (1975)

    Kohler and Milestein in 1975, came up with the concept of cytoplasmic hybridization, worked to produce the first ever antibodies, which has revolutionized the diagnostics to this day.
  • DNA Sequencing

    DNA Sequencing
    Fred Sanger and Maxan & Gilbert develop DNA Sequencing methods. The first DNA genome sequenced was a 5386 base pair phage by Sanger.
  • First Genetically Engineered Produect: 1978

    The first genetically engineered product to be developed is human insulin in1978. Paved the road for many other genetically engineered products to come in the future.
  • 1990: Breast Cancer is Mapped

    1990: Breast Cancer is Mapped
    First gene for breast cancer mapped. The BRCA1 gene produces the protein, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein, that helps repair damaged DNA or kill cells if DNA repairs cannot be made. Damage to this gene increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Neural Stem Cells: 1992

    Neural stem cells are identified in the adult human brain by Canadian Sam Weiss, leading the way for scientists around the world to investigate how to stimulate these cells to heal the brain.
  • Genetically Engineered Potato

    Genetically Engineered Potato
    The first genetically engineered potato, resistant to the Colorado potato beetle, is sold in Canada. Canada becomes the first country in the world
  • Growing a cornea: 1999

    Growing a cornea: 1999
    Dr. May Griffith, of the Ottawa Health Research Institute grows the world’s first cornea in a laboratory.
  • Human Genome: 2000

    While reading the article I found that the Human genome because how the technical advancement made it available to change and also replicate itself. In 2010 when JD Waston made replicating Human genome possible. I first thought it was impossible at first after doing some research if it wasn’t the help help of the other scientist the project of the human genome would be as advance today. Before the cell can replicate the cell has to be unzipped with the hydrogen bonds. (Michael)
  • 3000 BC: Maple Syrup

    Canada's indigenous people learn to make maple sugar and maple syrup from tree sap. This was the first step forward in biotech and its relationship with food.
  • 1936: Mobile Blood Transfusion

    1936: Mobile Blood Transfusion
    This life-saving invention was first introduced on the battlefield of the Spanish Civil War by Dr. Norman Bethune, a graduate of medicine from University of Toronto.
  • Canada declared polio free!: 1994

    A Signature Canadian project in Afghanistan from 2009 to 2011 was the eradication of polio?
  • 2100 BC and 1500 BC

    2100 BC and 1500 BC
    One of the oldest examples of crossbreeding for the benefit of humans is mule. Mule is an offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. People started using mules for transportation, carrying loads, and farming, when there were no tractors or trucks.
  • 4000 BC: The Chinese take a BIg Step Forward in Biotech

    in 4000 BC the Chinese were the first to use bacterias such as lactic acid to create food products such as yogurt, cheese, and fermentation to make vinegar, soy sauce and wine.