Bio

Redemption assignment

  • 384 BCE

    384-322 B.C. --Aristotle describes life with the Scala Naturae

    384-322 B.C. --Aristotle describes life with the Scala Naturae
    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. The Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae. The idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists.
  • 157

    157- Galen of Pergamon describes the human body

    157- Galen of Pergamon describes the human body
    He was the was the first anatomist made vast achievements in the understanding of the heart, the nervous system, and the mechanics of breathing.
  • 1809- Lamarck develops Hypothesis of evolution by means of acquired characteristics

    1809-  Lamarck develops Hypothesis of evolution by means of acquired characteristics
    Lamarck states that characteristics, or traits, developed in the lifespan of the parent are passed to the offspring. Although, it has been proven false.
  • Dec. 27th, 1831- The Voyage of the HMS Beagle

    Dec. 27th, 1831-  The Voyage of the HMS Beagle
    On the morning of 27 December 1831, H.M.S. Beagle, with a crew of seventy-three men, sailed out of Plymouth harbor under a calm easterly wind and drizzly rain. Darwin became seasick almost immediately and started to have second thoughts about the voyage. Also, The Voyage of the Beagle is the title most commonly given to the book written by Charles Darwin and published in 1839 as his Journal and Remarks, bringing him considerable fame and respect.
  • 1858- Alfred Russel Wallace published ideas of evolutionary processes

    1858-  Alfred Russel Wallace published ideas of evolutionary processes
    In 1858 Alfred Russel Wallace wrote a paper about his theory of Evolution and Natural Selection. He then sent it to Charles Darwin to look over his theory and pass it along for publication. In 1859, Wallace & Darwin published their joint theories.
  • 1859- Louis Pasteur refutes spontaneous generation

    1859- Louis Pasteur refutes spontaneous generation
    It was once believed that life could come from nonliving things, such as mice from corn, flies from bovine manure, maggots from rotting meat, and fish from the mud of previously dry lakes. Spontaneous generation is the incorrect hypothesis that nonliving things are capable of producing life. Several experiments have been conducted to disprove spontaneous generation.
  • Nov. 24, 1859- The Origin of species by means of Natural Selection is published

    Nov. 24, 1859-  The Origin of species by means of Natural Selection is published
    Scientific literature by C. Darwin is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. He included evidence from Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.
  • 1860-1864 -- The Germ Theory of Disease is published

    1860-1864 -- The Germ Theory of Disease is published
    The more formal experiments on the relationship between germ and disease were conducted by Louis Pasteur between 1860 and 1864. He discovered the pathology of the puerperal fever and the pyogenic vibrio in the blood, and suggested using boric acid to kill these microorganisms before and after confinement.
  • 1866- Gregor Mendel publishes works on inheritance of traits in pea plants

    1866- Gregor Mendel publishes works on inheritance of traits in pea plants
    Mendel's pea plant experiments established many rules of heredity,laws of Mendelian inheritance. Seven characteristics of pea plants: plant height, pod shape&color, seed shape&color, and flower position&color. Mendel coined the terms “recessive” and “dominant” in reference to certain traits. He published his work in 1866, demonstrating the actions of invisible genes in providing for visible traits in predictable ways.
  • 1874- The Challenger Oceanography Expedition sails around the world

    1874-  The Challenger Oceanography Expedition sails around the world
    The Challenger expedition of 1872–76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. The expedition was named after the mother vessel, HMS Challenger. On her 68,890-nautical-mile (127,580 km) journey circumnavigating the globe, 492 deep sea soundings, 133 bottom dredges, 151 open water trawls and 263 serial water temperature observations were taken. Also about 4,700 new species of marine life were discovered.
  • Nov. 6th, 1880- Plasmodium falciparum is described as the causative agent of malaria

    Nov. 6th, 1880-  Plasmodium falciparum is described as the causative agent of malaria
    Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, the most common specie of protozoan that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. The Malaria was most expose due to the palsmodium falciparum.
  • 1908- Hardy and Weinberg independently develop the Hardy-Weinberg equation for determining allele frequencies in populations

    1908-  Hardy and Weinberg independently develop the Hardy-Weinberg equation for determining allele frequencies in populations
    The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is the fundamental concept in population genetics (the study of genetics in a defined group). It is a mathematical equation describing the distribution and expression of alleles (forms of a gene) in a population, and it expresses the conditions under which allele frequencies are expected to change.
  • 1910- T. Hunt Morgan discovers sex-linkage

    1910-  T. Hunt Morgan discovers sex-linkage
    Thomas Hunt Morgan establishes the chromosomal theory of heredity. He Started to study the possibility of combining gender and eye colors in fruit flies had a physical and mechanistic basis in the chromosomes.
  • 1913- Neils Bohr develops the Bohr model of atom structure

    1913-  Neils Bohr develops the Bohr model of atom structure
    Bohr explains how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. Bohr modified the Rutherford model by requiring that the electrons move in orbits of fixed size and energy. The energy of an electron depends on the size of the orbit and is lower for smaller orbits. Radiation can occur only when the electron jumps from one orbit to another. The atom will be completely stable in the state with the smallest orbit, since there is no orbit of lower energy into which the electron can jump.
  • 1928- Frederick Griffith describes the process of transformation

    1928-  Frederick Griffith describes the process of transformation
    Frederick Griffith did an experiment where he mixed heat-killed S with live R and injected the combination into mice: the mouse died. he found out that the he dead mouse’s tissues were found to contain live bacteria with smooth coats like S. Heconcluded that something in the heat-killed S bacteria “transformed.”
  • 1937- Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origin of Species

    1937-   Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origin of Species
    By biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky. He applied the theoretical work of Sewall Wright(1889-1988) to the study of natural populations, allowing him to address evolutionary problems in a novel way during his time. He implements theories of mutation, natural selection, and specification throughout his book to explain habits of populations and the resulting effects on their genetic behavior.It explains evolution in depth as a process over time that accounts for the diversity of all life on Earth.
  • 1937- Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes “Nothing in Science Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.”

    1937-  Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes “Nothing in Science Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.”
    This was a book, was from an American scientist wrote which was the first substantial synthesis of the subjects and established evolutionary genetics as an independent discipline.
  • 1941-- Beadle and Tatum publish the 1 gene-1 enzyme hypothesis

    1941-- Beadle and Tatum publish the 1 gene-1 enzyme hypothesis
    The hypothesis was proposed by George Wells Beadle. The theory that each gene directly produces a single enzyme, which consequently affects an individual step in a metabolic pathway., Beadle demonstrated that one gene in a fruit fly controlled a single, specific chemical reaction in the fruit fly, which one enzyme controlled.
  • 1942- Ernst Mayr develops the Biological Species Concept

    1942-  Ernst Mayr develops the Biological Species Concept
    Ernst Mayr helped define the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory, proposing the "Biological Species Concept." He solved one great-unsolved problem in Darwin's work, On the Origin of Species.
  • 1943- Jacques Cousteau develops SCUBA

    1943- Jacques Cousteau develops SCUBA
    Jacques Cousteau developed, with Émile Gagnan, the first aqualung in 1943. For the next 50 years, he explored the world's oceans. He found there, being an environmentalist, Cousteau strove to persuade people to take care of the Earth, especially the oceans.
  • 1944- Avery, MacLoed and McCarty determine that DNA is the molecule that carries the genetic code

    1944-  Avery, MacLoed and McCarty determine that DNA is the molecule that carries the genetic code
    The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information. They helped demonstrate the role of DNA as the carrier of genetic information by working with the bacterium that causes pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Aug. 6th, 1945- The first atomic bomb is used in war

    Aug. 6th, 1945-  The first atomic bomb is used in war
    On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure.
  • 1947- Ensatina described as a ring species

    1947- Ensatina described as a ring species
    Ensatina's basic story was laid out by Robert Stebbins 30 years before Tom was born in 1977. Based on the ring-like distribution of the different forms, Robert had proposed that the species started off in Northern California and Oregon and then spread south along both sides of the Central Valley, which was too dry and hot for salamanders.
  • 1952- Rosalind Franklin works with DNA and X-Ray crystallography and develops “Image 51”

    1952-  Rosalind Franklin works with DNA and X-Ray crystallography and develops “Image 51”
    Rosalind Franklin works on how an X-ray diffraction pattern is created and also how the DNA X-ray diffraction pattern can be interpreted to give the dimensions. This was a huge step in science. Thanks to her now we are able to know more about DNA.
  • May 1952- Hershey-Chase experiments are published

    May 1952-  Hershey-Chase experiments are published
    Performed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase at Cold Spring Harbor, Laboratory in New York in 1952 published: AD Hershey and M Chase “Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage” Journal of General Physiology. (May 1952)
  • 1953- Miller-Urey experiments published

    1953-  Miller-Urey experiments published
    The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
  • 1953- Watson and Crick propose the double helix model of DNA structure

    1953-  Watson and Crick propose the double helix model of DNA structure
    The discovery in 1953 of the double helix, the twisted-ladder structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), by James Watson and Francis Crick marked a milestone in the history of science and gave rise to modern molecular biology, which is largely concerned with understanding how genes control the chemical process.
  • 1958- Meselson and Stahl work with DNA replication

    1958-  Meselson and Stahl work with DNA replication
    Watson and Crick's discovery of DNA structure and they revealed a possible mechanism for DNA replication. Then Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl, the exact relationship between DNA structure and replication. Years later the publication of Meselson and Stahl's results.
  • 1961- Nirenberg cracks the genetic code

    1961-  Nirenberg cracks the genetic code
    Discovered by Marshall Nirenberg and it is a sequence of three bases of DNA that codes for one of the twenty amino acids that serve as the building blocks of proteins that was the first "triplet". It was found that protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm, where RNA is found. RNA provided the key to the code.
  • 1967- Endosymbiosis is described by Lynn Margulis

    1967-  Endosymbiosis is described by Lynn Margulis
    Margulis's first article on endosymbiosis was written. Margulis's theory is often referred to as the set: serial endosymbiotic theory.
    This theory was very important to understand the cells.
  • 1969- Apollo 11 lands on the moon

    1969- Apollo 11 lands on the moon
    Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.
  • 1977- The Sanger Technique is developed

    1977-  The Sanger Technique is developed
    Frederick Sanger who invented the method of DNA sequencing by enzymes, now known as the Sanger method, he was able to determine the order of bases in a strand of DNA. This method helps scientists can read the sequence of nucleotide in a DNA molecule.
  • 1977- Deep sea hydrothermal vents and associated life around them are discovered

    1977-   Deep sea hydrothermal vents and associated life around them are discovered
    Scientists first discovered hydrothermal vents in 1977 while exploring an oceanic spreading ridge near the Galapagos Islands. Hydrothermal vents form at locations where seawater meets magma.
  • 1978- Australopithecus afarensis nicknamed “Lucy” fossil discovered

    1978-  Australopithecus afarensis nicknamed “Lucy” fossil discovered
    A new species name, Australopithecus afarensis, was therefore created for them in 1978. This species is now represented by several hundred fossils from east Africa.
  • 1983- Barbara McClintock describes transposons

    1983-  Barbara McClintock describes transposons
    McClintock's discovery of transposable elements in Zea that changed the way scientists think about genetic patterns of inheritance. She looked at the behavior of kernel color alleles and its proposition does not always follow a consistent pattern.
  • 1983- Kary Mullis develops Polymerase Chain Reaction

    1983-  Kary Mullis develops Polymerase Chain Reaction
    He was the developer of the polymerase chain reaction. The PCR is based on using the ability of DNA polymerase to synthesize new strand of DNA complementary to the offered template strand.
  • Feb. 5th, 1988- Tommie Lee Andrews is convicted of rape

    Feb. 5th, 1988-  Tommie Lee Andrews is convicted of rape
    A jury had convicted Tommie Lee Andrews of rape on the basis of the DNA ''fingerprint'' of his blood. The DNA samples, and an expert in genetics analysis had testified that the DNA ''fingerprint'' of Tommy Lee Andrews' blood matched that of the rapist's semen.
  • 1989- “Reproductive isolation as a consequence of adaptive divergence in Drosophila pseudoobscrura” published.

    1989- “Reproductive isolation as a consequence of adaptive divergence in Drosophila pseudoobscrura” published.
    DIANE M. B. DODD- Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT Received May 27, 1988. Accepted March 31, 1989
  • 1992- The Innocence Project is founded

    1992-  The Innocence Project is founded
    The project was started by Barry C. Scheck and Peter J. Neufeld at the N. Cardozo school of law at Yeshiva University it was founded to help prisoners who could be proven innocent through DNA testing. It did help a lot of the people who were in jail for no reason. The innocence project’s use of DNA technology .
  • 1993-- CRISPr/CAS 9 is identified and described

    1993-- CRISPr/CAS 9 is identified and described
    Francisco Mojca was the first researcher to characterize what is now called CRISPr locus. He recognized that what had been reported as disparate repeat sequences.
  • Jul. 5th, 1996- Dolly the sheep is cloned

    Jul. 5th, 1996-  Dolly the sheep is cloned
    On July 5th, 1996, Dolly, a Finn Dorset sheep, was born by cloning. Dolly was the world's first mammal to be cloned successfully from an adult cell. Dolly's birth and subsequent survival proved that adult cells can reprogram themselves into a new being.
  • 2001- Sahelanthropus tchadensis fossil discovered

    2001- Sahelanthropus tchadensis fossil discovered
    History of Discovery: The first (and, so far, only) fossils of Sahelanthropus are nine cranial specimens from northern Chad. A research team of scientists led by French paleontologist Michael Brunet uncovered the fossils in 2001, including the type specimen TM 266-01-0606-1.
  • 2003- Human genome is fully sequenced

    2003- Human genome is fully sequenced
    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA,& identifying & mapping all the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. It remains the world's largest collaborative biological project.After the idea was picked up in 1984 by the US government when the planning started, the project formally launched in 1990 and was declared complete in 2003.
  • 2008- Homo denisova fossil discovered

    2008-  Homo denisova fossil discovered
    In 2008, Michael Shunkov from the Russian Academy of Sciences and other Russian archaeologists investigated the cave. They found the finger bone of a juvenile hominin, dubbed the "X woman" (referring to the maternal descent of mitochondrial DNA or the Denisova hominin).
  • Jun. 30th, 2011- Richard L Bible is executed

    Jun. 30th, 2011-  Richard L Bible is executed
    He was executed by the state of Arizona on June 30, 2011 for molesting and fatally bludgeoning a 9-year-old Jennifer Wilson in 1988. He asked the supreme court to delay his execution and do a DNA testing for the evidence of his trial.
  • May 13th, 2014-- Spliceosomes were discovered and described

    May 13th, 2014--  Spliceosomes were discovered and described
    The processes in biological cells have to be controlled both in time and in space. To regulate one of the essential processes accompanying gene expression.