DNA Timeline

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    Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel was monk that lived during the middle of the 19th century, During his free time Mendel studied pea plants and discovered the different kind of traits and he made the Law's of mendel in which 1) The Law of Segregation
    2) A law of Dominance.
    3) The Law of the Independent Assorment
  • Fried Miescher

    Johann Friedrich Miescher discovers a weakly acidic substance in human nuclei he calls nuclein. It is later
    called DNA.
  • Walther Fleming

    Walther Fleming discovers chromosomes.
  • Carl, Hugo and Enrich rediscovering Mendel's laws

    Carl Correns, Hugo de Vries and Enrich Rediscovered the law's of Mendel by studying the Law's of heredity and making other kind of experiments
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    Walter Stanborough Sutton

    Walter Stanborough Sutton uses grasshoppers to discover that chromosomes have genes.
  • Thomas Morgan

    Thomas Hunt Morgan established the chromosomal theory of inheritance. In 1911, he established the "Fly Room" at Columbia to determine how a species changed over time. Many of the important discoveries of genetic and chromosomal inheritance came out of Morgan's lab through research using fruit flies
  • Hermann Muller

    H. Muller shows that X-rays induce mutations in a dose-dependent fashion.
  • Genome

    The term was adapted in 1920 by Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany. In Greek, the word genome means "I become, I am born, to come into being". The Oxford English Dictionary suggests the name to be a blend of the words gene and chromosome. A few related -ome words already existed, such as biome and rhizome, forming a vocabulary into which genome fits systematically.
  • Chromosomes

    Chromosomes are shown to be made of protein and DNA.
  • Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock.

    Genetic recombination is caused by a physical exchange of chromosomal pieces, as shown in corn by Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock.
  • Beadle and Tatum.

    George Beadle, "Beets" to his friends, and Edward Tatum experimentally demonstrated the “one gene one protein” hypothesis. Their statement was one gene encodes one protein, as described by Beadle and Tatum.
  • Oswald Avery

    Oswald Avery figures out that Griffith’s substance was DNA.
  • Lederberg and Tatum.

    Genetic material can be transferred laterally between bacterial cells, as shown by Lederberg and Tatum.
  • Erwin Chargaff

    In DNA, there are equal amounts of A and T, and equal amounts of C and G, as shown by Erwin Chargaff. However, the A+T to C+G ratio can differ between organisms.
  • Roy Britten

    Roy Britten showed that eukaryotic genomes have many repetitive, noncoding DNA sequences.
  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

    DNA is the molecule that mediates heredity, as shown in bacteriophage labeling experiments by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. This confirmation of the 1944 results really convinced everyone.
  • Francis Crick, James Watson and Rosalind Franklin

    Francis Crick, James Watson and Rosalind Franklin discover the double helix structure of Dna by using X-ray at the cell.
  • Francis Crick and James Watson

    James Watson and Francis Crick at the same time of Franklin's Discovery were trying to figure out the DNA Structure later they concluded DNA must look like a Long twisted Ladder and made their own model. This model later Help explain how DNA is copied and how it functions in the cell.

    Besides coming up with the double helix structure for DNA with James Watson, Crick also proposed the Central Dogma and Adaptor Hypothesis.
  • Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland

    Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland determined the identity of Crick’s adaptor molecule, tRNA.
  • Meselson and Stahl

    Meselson and Stahl experimentally proved Watson and Crick’s model of semi-conservative replication.
  • DNA and RNA

    Messenger RNA is the intermediate between DNA and protein.

    Syndney Brenner with help of his colleagues François Jacob and Mathew Meselson showed that rRNA was not the template for building proteins, There was third type of RNA-an unstable intermidiate-That carries the DNA message to the ribosomes
  • The genetic Code is cracked

    The genetic code is cracked by a number of researchers (including Nirenberg, Matthaei, Leder, and Khorana etc..) using RNA homopolymer and heteropolymer experiments as well as tRNA labeling experiments.
  • Hamilton Smith

    The first restriction enzyme is purified by Hamilton Smith.
  • Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer

    Recombinant DNA is first constructed by Cohen and Boyer.
  • Roger Kornberg

    Roger Kornberg figured out the importance of histones to chromatin structure.
  • Fred Sanger

    DNA sequencing technology is developed by Fred Sanger.
  • Kary Mullis

    PCR is developed by Kary Mullis.
  • DNA Fingerprinting etc...

    DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy, and genetically modified foods come onto the scene.
  • Pat Brown

    DNA microarrays are invented by Pat Brown and colleagues.
  • Technology and DNA

    Automated sequencing technology allows genome projects to accelerate.
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    Ian Wilmut

    The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) is performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues, from the Roslin institute in Scotland.
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    Genome projects

    Genome projects are begun. The yeast genome is complete in 1996, and the C. elegans genome is done in 1998.
  • Human Genome Completed

    The Drosophila genome is completed. The Arabidopsis genome is completed. The human genome is reported to be completed.
  • J. Craig Venter

    J. Craig Venter began the race to sequence the human genome when he unexpectedly announced to a room full of genome researchers that they could just quit now, thank you, because his company would finish the job. People who like him say he never filters his thoughts and he shoots from the hip. Others have been less diplomatic, calling him an egomaniac, an idiot, and a shallow man.
  • Post-genomic era

    The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins.
  • Animal and human cloning

    Controversies continue over human and animal cloning, research on stem cells, and genetic modification of crops.