Major events in the Development of CSI Sciences

  • 300

    First Forensics

    First Forensics
    Fingerprints are used on clay tablets for business transaction in ancient Babylon.
  • Jan 1, 600

    Measuring Volume of Strange Objects

    Measuring Volume of Strange Objects
    Archimedes talks about being able to prove the crown was not made of gold using density and buoyancy.
  • Jan 1, 750

    First Lie Detector

    Erasistratus, an ancient Greek physician, discovers that his patients’ pulse rates increase when they are telling lies. Allegedly the first lie detection test.
  • Jan 28, 1235

    Learning to Find Murder Weapons

    Learning to Find Murder Weapons
    A murder was committed using a sickle. All those in the village who owned a sickle were made to bring them out and lay them in the sun. Eventually flies gathered on one particular sickle, identifying it as the murder weapon.
  • Jan 28, 1248

    Medicine in Murder

    The Chinese book His Duan Yu describes how to distinguish drowning from strangulation. The first recorded application of medicine to help solve crimes.
  • Jan 1, 1302

    First Medical Autopsy

    First Medical Autopsy
    Bartolomeo da Varignana performed one of the first medicolegal autopsies in the case of a suspected murder of a nobleman.
  • Jan 1, 1447

    Using Teeth

    The missing teeth of the French Duke of Burgundy are used to identify remains.
  • First Microscope

    First Microscope
    The first microscope is developed.
  • Using Physical Matching

    Using Physical Matching
    John Toms of Lancaster, England is convicted of murder on the basis of a torn wad of paper found in a pistol matching a remaining piece in his pocket. One of the first documented uses of physical matching.
  • Bullet Comparison

    Bullet Comparison
    Henry Goddard of Scotland Yard first uses bullet comparison to catch a murderer. The comparison was based in a visible flaw in the bullet, traced back to a mold.
  • Detecting Sperm

    H. Baynard publishes the first reliable procedures for the microscopic detection of sperm.
  • Using Body Temperature to Determine Time of Death

    Taylor and Wilkes write a paper on the determination of time since death from fall in body temperature, introducing many current concepts.
  • Photographing Evidence

    Photographing Evidence
    First advocation of the use of photography for the identification of criminals and the documentation of evidence and crime scenes.
  • Using Fingerprints to determine Crime

    Using Fingerprints to determine Crime
    Henry Faulds of Scotland publishes a paper suggesting fingerprints at the scene of a crime could identify the offender. Faulds uses fingerprints to eliminate an innocent suspect and indicate a perpetrator in a Tokyo burglary.
  • FingerPrinting Criminals

    The NY States Prison system begins the first systematic use of fingerprints in the US for criminal identification.
  • Telling Weapons Apart

    Charles E. Waite is the first to catalogue manufacturing data about weapons.
  • Portable Polygraph

    Portable Polygraph
    John Larson and Leonard Keeler design the portable polygraph.
  • FBI Crime Lab

    The FBI crime laboratory is created.
  • Using Dental Records

    Using Dental Records
    Dental records are compared with teeth from corpses.
  • Tape lifting Evidence

    Tape lifting Evidence
    Max Frei-Sulzer develops the tape lift method of collecting trace evidence.
  • Breathalyzer Test

    Breathalyzer Test
    R. F. Borkenstein invents the Breathalyzer for field sobriety testing.
  • Body Cooling After Death Discoveries

    De Saram publishes measurements of temperature I cases obtained from executed prisoners. The papers are considered landmarks in determination of time since death from body cooling.
  • Testing for Firearm Discharge

    Testing for Firearm Discharge
    Harrison and Gilroy introduce a qualitative colorimetric chemical test to detect the presence of barium, antimony and lead on the hands of individuals who fired a firearm.
  • Using Forensic Science to Solve crimes

    The Federal rules of Evidence are enacted as a congressional statute, based on the relevancy standard in which scientific evidence that is deemed more prejudicial than probative may not be admitted.
  • Finger Print Scanning System

    The FBI introduces the beginnings of its Automated Fingerprint Idrntification System (AFIS) with first computerised scans of fingerprints.
  • Starting DNA Recognition

    Starting DNA Recognition
    American geneticists discover a region of DNA that does not hold any genetic information and is extremely variable between individuals. Starting our path on dna recognition.
  • Using DNA to Catch a Criminal

    Using DNA to Catch a Criminal
    DNA is used for the first time to solve a crime. DNA profiling is used to identify Colin Pitchfork as the murderer of two young girls in the English Midlands.
  • DNA Profiling in Court

    DNA profiling is introduced for the first time in a US criminal court.
  • Shell Casings as Evidence

    The FBI helps develop Drugfire, an automated imaging system to compare marks left on cartridge cases and shell casings.
  • FBI Uses DNA

    An FBI DNA database, NIDIS, is put into practice.
  • Footwear Detection Intelligence

    Footwear Detection Intelligence
    The Forensic Science Service launches the UK’s first online footwear coding and detection management system, Footwear Intelligence Technology.