The hard truth about genetics and muscle growth

Genetics ( 1800-2000 )

  • Charles Darwin Alfred Russel Wallace

    Joint announcement of the theory of natural selection-that members of a population who are better adapted to the environment survive and pass on their traits.
  • Period: to

    History of Genetics

  • Charles Darwin

    Introducing the origin of species
  • Gregor Mendel

    Austrian monk Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits between generations based on experiments involving garden pea plants
  • J. F. Miescher

    isolated cell nuclei. Miescher separated the nucleic cells from bandages and then treated them with pepsin (an enzyme which breaks down proteins)
  • Carl Correns Hugo de Vries Erich von Tscherma

    Mendel's principles were independently discovered and verified, marking the beginning of modern genetics
  • Walter Sutton

    Pointed out the interrelationships between cytology and Mendelism, closing the gap between cell morphology and heredity.
  • Nettie Stevens Edmund Wilson

    Independently described the behavior of sex chromosomes-XX determines female; XY determines male
  • Archibald Garro

    Proposed that some human diseases are due to "inborn errors of metabolism" that result from the lack of a specific enzyme.
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

    theory of sex-linked inheritance for the first mutation discovered in the fruit fly, Drosophila, white eye. This was followed by the gene theory, including the principle of linkage.
  • Alfred Sturtevant

    one of Morgan's students, invented the procedure of linkage mapping which is based on the frequency of recombination. A few years later, he constructed the world's first chromosome map
  • Frederick Griffith

    studied bacterial transformation and observed that DNA carries genes responsible for pathogenicity
  • Hermann J. Muller

    Used x-rays to cause artificial gene mutations in Drosophila.
  • Fred Griffith

    Proposed that some unknown "principle" had transformed the harmless R strain of Diplococcus to the virulent S strain.
  • Harriet B. Creighton Barbara McClintock

    Demonstrated the cytological proof for crossing-over in maize.
  • Thomas Morgan

    His work elucidated the role played by the chromosome in heredity.
  • George Beadle Edward Tatum

    Irradiated the red bread mold, Neurospora, and proved that the gene produces its effect by regulating particular enzymes.
  • Luria–Delbrück experiment

    An experiment showed that mutation in bacteria was random.
  • Oswald Avery Colin MacLeodMaclyn McCarty

    Reported that they had purified the transforming principle in Griffith's experiment and that it was DNA.
  • Max Delbruck

    Organized a phage course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory which was taught for 26 consecutive years. This course was the training ground of the first two generations of molecular biologists
  • Erwin Chargaff

    Discovered a one-to-one ratio of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine in DNA samples from a variety of organisms.
  • Rosalind Franklin

    Obtained sharp X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA.
  • Martha Chase Alfred Hershey

    Used phages in which the protein was labeled with 35S and the DNA with 32P for the final proof that DNA is the molecule of heredity
  • Francis Crick James Watson

    Solved the three-dimensional structure of the DNA molecule.
  • Alexander R. Todd

    determined the chemical makeup of nitrogenous bases. Todd also successfully synthesized Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Favin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) . He was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1957 for his contributions in the scientific knowledge of nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes
  • Joe Hin Tjio

    determined the number of chromosomes in humans to be of 46. Tjio was attempting to refine an established technique to separate chromosomes onto glass slides by conducting a study of human embryonic lung tissue, when he saw that there were 46 chromosomes rather than 48.
  • Arthur Kornberg

    with Severo Ochoa synthesized DNA in a test tube after discovering the means by which DNA is duplicated . DNA polymerase 1 established requirements for in vitro synthesis of DNA
  • Matthew Meselson Frank Stahl

    Used isotopes of nitrogen to prove the semiconservative replication of DNA.
  • Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner

    discovered frame shift mutations. In the experiment, proflavin-induced mutations of the T4 bacteriophage gene (rIIB) were isolated. Proflavin causes mutations by inserting itself between DNA bases, typically resulting in insertion or deletion of a single base pair
  • Marshall Nirenberg, H. Gobind Khorana

    Led teams that cracked the genetic code- that triplet mRNA codons specify each of the twenty amino acids.
  • Hamilton Smith Kent Wilcox

    Isolated the first restriction enzyme, HindII, that could cut DNA molecules within specific recognition sites.
  • Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer

    constructed Recombinant DNA which can be formed by using restriction Endonuclease to cleave the DNA and DNA ligase to reattach the “sticky ends” into a bacterial plasmid
  • Frederick Sanger and Charles Coulson

    Devised DNA sequencing for the first time.
  • Fred Sanger

    Developed the chain termination (dideoxy) method for sequencing DNA.
  • Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger

    developed methods of mapping the structure of DNA
  • Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer

    proving the successful outcome of cloning a plasmid and expressing a foreign gene in bacteria to produce a “protein foreign to a unicellular organism.
  • FED

    approved the release of the first genetically engineered human insulin,
  • Kary Mullis

    drafted a technique for amplifying DNA through a cloning procedure that became known as polymerase chain reaction. Heat applied to the DNA segment causes it to separate, allowing the DNA polymerase to bind with the single strand of DNA
  • Alec Jeffreys

    DNA fingerprinting method. Jeffreys was studying DNA variation and the evolution of gene families in order to understand disease causing genes.[32] In an attempt to develop a process to isolate many mini-satellites at once using chemical probes.
  • Jeremy Nathans

    Found genes for color vision and color blindness
  • Francis Collins Lap-Chee Tsui

    Identified the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) on chromosome 7 that, when mutant, causes cystic fibrosis.
  • Genome Innovation

    Genome projects are begun. First gene replacement therapy-T cells of a four-year old girl were exposed outside of her body to retroviruses containing an RNA copy of a normal ADA gene
  • Genetically produced food

    The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are "not inherently dangerous" and do not require special regulation.
    Also,The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is created by merging two smaller trade associations.
  • Innovation

    The first breast cancer gene is obtained, research took place.
  • Gene Therapy

    Gene therapy, immune system modulation and genetically engineered antibodies enter the clinics in the war against cancer
  • Dolly The Sheep

    Dolly The Sheep
    Scottish scientists report cloning a sheep, named Dolly, using DNA from adult sheep cells
  • Genetically produced Mice

    University of Hawaii scientists clone three generations of mice from nuclei of adult ovarian cumulus cells.
  • Genome Completion

    The Drosophila genome is completed. Celera Genomics announced the first complete assembly of the human genome. Using whole genome shotgun sequencing