Joint announcement of the theory of natural selection-that members of a population who are better adapted to the environment survive and pass on their traits.
History of Genetics
Introducing the origin of species
Austrian monk Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits between generations based on experiments involving garden pea plants
J. F. Miescher
isolated cell nuclei. Miescher separated the nucleic cells from bandages and then treated them with pepsin (an enzyme which breaks down proteins)
Carl Correns Hugo de Vries Erich von Tscherma
Mendel's principles were independently discovered and verified, marking the beginning of modern genetics
Pointed out the interrelationships between cytology and Mendelism, closing the gap between cell morphology and heredity.
Nettie Stevens Edmund Wilson
Independently described the behavior of sex chromosomes-XX determines female; XY determines male
Proposed that some human diseases are due to "inborn errors of metabolism" that result from the lack of a specific enzyme.
Thomas Hunt Morgan
theory of sex-linked inheritance for the first mutation discovered in the fruit fly, Drosophila, white eye. This was followed by the gene theory, including the principle of linkage.
one of Morgan's students, invented the procedure of linkage mapping which is based on the frequency of recombination. A few years later, he constructed the world's first chromosome map
studied bacterial transformation and observed that DNA carries genes responsible for pathogenicity
Hermann J. Muller
Used x-rays to cause artificial gene mutations in Drosophila.
Proposed that some unknown "principle" had transformed the harmless R strain of Diplococcus to the virulent S strain.
Harriet B. Creighton Barbara McClintock
Demonstrated the cytological proof for crossing-over in maize.
His work elucidated the role played by the chromosome in heredity.
George Beadle Edward Tatum
Irradiated the red bread mold, Neurospora, and proved that the gene produces its effect by regulating particular enzymes.
An experiment showed that mutation in bacteria was random.
Oswald Avery Colin MacLeodMaclyn McCarty
Reported that they had purified the transforming principle in Griffith's experiment and that it was DNA.
Organized a phage course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory which was taught for 26 consecutive years. This course was the training ground of the first two generations of molecular biologists
Discovered a one-to-one ratio of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine in DNA samples from a variety of organisms.
Obtained sharp X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA.
Martha Chase Alfred Hershey
Used phages in which the protein was labeled with 35S and the DNA with 32P for the final proof that DNA is the molecule of heredity
Francis Crick James Watson
Solved the three-dimensional structure of the DNA molecule.
Alexander R. Todd
determined the chemical makeup of nitrogenous bases. Todd also successfully synthesized Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Favin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) . He was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1957 for his contributions in the scientific knowledge of nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes
Joe Hin Tjio
determined the number of chromosomes in humans to be of 46. Tjio was attempting to refine an established technique to separate chromosomes onto glass slides by conducting a study of human embryonic lung tissue, when he saw that there were 46 chromosomes rather than 48.
with Severo Ochoa synthesized DNA in a test tube after discovering the means by which DNA is duplicated . DNA polymerase 1 established requirements for in vitro synthesis of DNA
Matthew Meselson Frank Stahl
Used isotopes of nitrogen to prove the semiconservative replication of DNA.
Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner
discovered frame shift mutations. In the experiment, proflavin-induced mutations of the T4 bacteriophage gene (rIIB) were isolated. Proflavin causes mutations by inserting itself between DNA bases, typically resulting in insertion or deletion of a single base pair
Marshall Nirenberg, H. Gobind Khorana
Led teams that cracked the genetic code- that triplet mRNA codons specify each of the twenty amino acids.
Hamilton Smith Kent Wilcox
Isolated the first restriction enzyme, HindII, that could cut DNA molecules within specific recognition sites.
Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer
constructed Recombinant DNA which can be formed by using restriction Endonuclease to cleave the DNA and DNA ligase to reattach the “sticky ends” into a bacterial plasmid
Frederick Sanger and Charles Coulson
Devised DNA sequencing for the first time.
Developed the chain termination (dideoxy) method for sequencing DNA.
Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
developed methods of mapping the structure of DNA
Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer
proving the successful outcome of cloning a plasmid and expressing a foreign gene in bacteria to produce a “protein foreign to a unicellular organism.
approved the release of the first genetically engineered human insulin,
drafted a technique for amplifying DNA through a cloning procedure that became known as polymerase chain reaction. Heat applied to the DNA segment causes it to separate, allowing the DNA polymerase to bind with the single strand of DNA
DNA fingerprinting method. Jeffreys was studying DNA variation and the evolution of gene families in order to understand disease causing genes. In an attempt to develop a process to isolate many mini-satellites at once using chemical probes.
Found genes for color vision and color blindness
Francis Collins Lap-Chee Tsui
Identified the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) on chromosome 7 that, when mutant, causes cystic fibrosis.
Genome projects are begun. First gene replacement therapy-T cells of a four-year old girl were exposed outside of her body to retroviruses containing an RNA copy of a normal ADA gene
Genetically produced food
The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are "not inherently dangerous" and do not require special regulation.
Also,The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is created by merging two smaller trade associations.
The first breast cancer gene is obtained, research took place.
Gene therapy, immune system modulation and genetically engineered antibodies enter the clinics in the war against cancer
Dolly The Sheep
Scottish scientists report cloning a sheep, named Dolly, using DNA from adult sheep cells
Genetically produced Mice
University of Hawaii scientists clone three generations of mice from nuclei of adult ovarian cumulus cells.
The Drosophila genome is completed. Celera Genomics announced the first complete assembly of the human genome. Using whole genome shotgun sequencing