history of DNA

  • Mendel's Peas

    Mendel's Peas
    Gregor Mendel identifies his experiments with peas showing that heredity is passed on in seperates units. Mendel was a monk in the Augustinian order,in botany. He studied mathematics and science at the University of Vienna to become a science teacher.
  • DNA first Isolated

    DNA first Isolated
    Friedrich Miescher isolated DNA for the first time in 1869. He wanted to stduy the chemistry of cells. He continued to study in white blood cells. Miescher isolated a material high in phosphorus from the cells and called it ''nuclein''.
  • Rediscovery of Mendel's Wor

    Rediscovery of Mendel's Wor
    Three botanists; DeVries, Correns and Tschermak all rediscoverd Mendel's work. They helped grow awareness of the Mendelian laws of inheritance in the scientific world.
  • The Word Gene Coined

    The Word Gene Coined
    Wilhelm Johannsen focused on the word gene, to describe Mendelian units of heredity.
  • Fruit Flies Illuminate the Chromosome Theory

     Fruit Flies Illuminate the Chromosome Theory
    Thomas Hunt Morgan and his group, used a bunch of fruit flies to help prove that genes, strung on chromosomes are the units of heredity. They showed this at Columbia University. In 1933, Morgan received the Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine for helping out ; proving the chromosome theory of inheritance.
  • One Gene, One Enzyme

    One Gene, One Enzyme
    George Beadle and Edward Tatum had an hypothesis of one gene one enzyme. He spent two years in Morgans lab studying about the fruit flies genetics. He had an even simpler model for studying genetics.
  • Jumping Genes

    Jumping Genes
    Barbara McClintock had discoverd that genes can jump around on chromosomes. She had used coen as her organism to prove this. This revealed that the genome was much more dynamic than previously thought.
  • 46 Human Chromosomes

     46 Human Chromosomes
    Joe Hin Tjio had discovered the exact number of chromosomes that each human recieves. He was first interested in cancer cells. In early 1955, the number of chromosomes was 48. But in late 1955, he ad discovered that the real number was 46.
  • Chromosome Abnormalities Identified

     Chromosome Abnormalities Identified
    Professor Jerome Lejeune and his people discovered Down syndrome in 1959. It was first classified by J.L.H. Down syndrome is caused by trisomy-21. Which is having 3 nstead of 2 copies of chromosomes. The extra chromosomes affect the development of the brain and body.
  • First Screen for Metabolic Defect in Newborns

    First Screen for Metabolic Defect in Newborns
    Robert Guthrie was a doctor and scientist at the University of Buffalo Childrens Hospital. He had came up with a new discovery a new way to test if new borm babies have phenylketonuria.
  • Genetic Code Cracked

     Genetic Code Cracked
    Marshall Nirenberg, Har Khorana and Severo Ochoa and their group discovered the genetic code. It was showing how nucleic acids with their 4-letter alphabet determine the order of the 20 kinds of amino acids in proteins.
  • First Genetic Engineering Company

    First Genetic Engineering Company
    In 1976 the first genetic engineering company was discovered. Herbert Boyer, one of the creators of recombinant DNA technology in the early 1970s, founded Genentech with venture capitalist Robert Swanson. In 1977, the company produced the first human protein in a bacterium.
  • DNA Sequencing

    DNA Sequencing
    Sanger and his group and Maxam and Gilbert developed rapid DNA sequencing methods. They came up with a different way to suquance the DNA. This method is commonly used in all labs now. Back then they used to use DNA chains, now they use colord dyes.
  • First Transgenic Mice and Fruit Flies

    First Transgenic Mice and Fruit Flies
    In the early 1980s, scientist figured out how to add stably-inherited new genes to animals. The fist 2 animals they used were fruit flies and mice. By adding new genes, scientist found a new way to test the genes.
  • First Disease Gene Mapped

    First Disease Gene Mapped
    in 1983 Hunington Disease was found on chromosome 4. Hunington disease was the first disease mapped using DNA polymorphisms.
  • YACs Developed

    YACs Developed
    YAC stands for Yeast artifial chromosomes. It can carry large segments of DNA from other species to another. (in humans) A YAC is duplicated when a yeast has been divided. YACs can carry million base pair long fragments of human DNA.
  • Research on BACs

     Research on BACs
    In 1990, researchers began to study how to efficiently produce stable carriers of large DNA inserts in bacteria, which are called BACS. BAC stand for bacterial artificial chromosome. It is a peice of human DNA fitted into a bacterial vector.
  • New HGP Five-year Plan

     New HGP Five-year Plan
    In 1990 the National Institutes of Health and department of Energy to establish a new set of goals for the Human Genome Project. It was meant to detail genetic and physical maps.
  • Microbial Genome Project

     Microbial Genome Project
    In 1994 the DOE began a Microbial Genome Program. They do not cause any types of diseases. They are very important in the enviornment and in energy.
  • Physical Map of Human Genome Completed

     Physical Map of Human Genome Completed
    A physical map is a type of map that uses sequance-tagged sites. It was used as marker to order large segments of DNA.
  • Archaea Genome Sequenced

     Archaea Genome Sequenced
    The genome sequence of the microorganism Methanococcus jannaschii said that there is a third main branch of life on Earth, along with bacteria and plants and animals. This third branch is called Archaea. This part of Earth is included in the cells.
  • Human DNA Sequence Begins

    Human DNA Sequence Begins
    The National Human Genome Research Institute collected pilot projects to find strategies for completing the sequance of the human genome.
  • Bermuda Meeting Affirms Principle of Data Release

    Bermuda Meeting Affirms Principle of Data Release
    The second HGP Large-scale sequencing strategy was held in Bermuda in 1997. The HGP officials affirmed the principles of rapid public of genome sequence data. It was later called the ''Bermuda principles''
  • Committee on Genetic Testing

    Committee on Genetic Testing
    In June 1998, the Secretary of Health and Human Service’s Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing.. These groups identified the need for broad-based public policy development to help the nation address the benefits and challenges of genetic knowledge and genetic testing.
  • Human Genome Project Completed

    Human Genome Project Completed
    The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium announced the successful completion of the Human Genome Project more than two years ahead of schedule and under budget. In 2001, the international consortium published a draft sequence.