Dna biology1

History of Biology in a Gist

  • 330 BCE

    Scala Naturae

    Scala Naturae
    Aristotle was the first to create a detailed classification of living things. He called it Natures Ladder. It was a big hit during the medieval period which incorporated into the idea of the Great Chain of Being. It classifies blooded vertebrates to bloodless invertebrates land and sea arthropods to shelled and soft animals to plants.[http://palaeos.com/systematics/greatchainofbeing/scala_naturae.html]
  • 140 BCE

    Galen of Pergamon

    Galen of Pergamon
    Considered Roman Empires Greatest physician. He wrote more books than anyone else at the time. At the time he was the master of medicine. Although he was not allowed to dissect a body lots of his anatomy was not completely correct. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galen]
  • Hypothesis of Evolution

    Hypothesis of Evolution
    Lamarck is best known for his theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics. First released in 1801. His belief is that if an organism can change it self during its life time to adapt to the environment it will pass those survival traits to the offspring. [necsi.edu/projects/evolution/lamarck/lamarck/lamarck_lamarck.html]
  • The Voyage of The Beagle

    The Voyage of The Beagle
    A famous voyage of his majesty’s ship with Charles Darwin on board. Its primary purpose was to scope out South America’s lower coast. The voyage was successful at the end even though there was awful weather and death a board. Innovative information was logged by Darwin from is observations on this very historic voyage. [http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/darwin/a-trip-around-the-world/]
  • The Origin of Species

    The Origin of Species
    Charles Darwin published his first edition of his most famous work in discovering natural selection. Natural selection being survival of the fittest just explains how in the world species that can best adapt to its environment are most fit and have the highest chances of surviving. [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?pageseq=1&itemID=F373&viewtype=side]
  • Spontaneous Generation

    Spontaneous Generation
    Louis Pasteur experiment is where he tested samples in sterilized flasks. One set was open to contamination of floating dust particles and the other that the tube neck to where dust particles could not settle into the sample. Thus proving micobacterial life exist. [http://www.pasteurbrewing.com/louis-pasteur-experiment-refute-spontaneous-generation/]
  • Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel
    Famous for his experimental work on pea plants. A discovery of inheritance by playing with the different plant genes and generation physical traits to show how characteristics can be changed. Also how traits are inherited as either dominant, recessive or co-dominant. [www.dnaftb.org/1/bio.html]
  • The Germ Theory of Disease

    The Germ Theory of Disease
    It states how diseases are caused my microorganisms. Classified a germ as small living things we cannot see with the naked eye but do cause harmful or beneficial effects. It is how disease spreads by not being clean. Published between 1860-1864 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germ_theory_of_disease]
  • Alfred Russel Wallace

    Alfred Russel Wallace
    A British researcher, explorer, anthropologists and biologist who played a great role in devolving the theory of natural selection alongside Charles Darwin. Only Wallace’s intelligent evolution limits the power of natural selection to effect biological change. [http://www.alfredwallace.org/intelligent-evolution.php]
  • Plasmodium Falciparum

    Plasmodium Falciparum
    A protozoan parasite known to cause malaria in humans. It is shared by the female mosquito and is the most fatal cause of death around the world. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmodium_falciparum
  • The Hardy-Weinberg equation

    The Hardy-Weinberg equation
    The Hardy-Weinberg equation is a mathematical equation that can be used to calculate the genetic variation of a population at equilibrium. In 1908, G. H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg independently described a basic principle of population genetics, which is now named the Hardy-Weinberg equation.[http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/hardy-weinberg-equation-299
  • Sex Linkage

     Sex Linkage
    Discovered by T hunt Morgan using fruit flys. It is the physical expression of an allele that depends on what gender the individual is and it is directly dependent on the sex chromosome. Genes located on either the X or Y chromosome. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/sex_linkage.htm]
  • Frederick Griffith

    Frederick Griffith
    he conducted an expeiment discovering the transformation principle in in pneumococcus bacteria. Griffith's experiment, reported in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffith's_experiment]e
  • Neils Bohr

    Neils Bohr
    Niels Bohr was one of the foremost scientists of modern physics, best known for his substantial contributions to quantum theory. The Bohr model shows the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons.
  • Theodosius Dobzhansky

    Theodosius Dobzhansky
    Author of Synthetic Theory of Evolution it talks about the complex biological arrangement of natural selection. It was a relevant incorporation of new knowledge and old knowledge. It refashioned the old understandings with natural history and experimental genetics with new equations and speciation. [http://www.pnas.org/content/94/15/7691.full]
  • Transponsons

    McClintock challenged existing concepts of what genes were capable of when she discovered that some genes could be mobile. Her studies of chromosome breakage in maize led her to discover a chromosome-breaking locus that could change its position within a chromosome known as transponsons. [http://www.pnas.org/content/109/50/20198.full]
  • Beadle and Tatum

    Beadle and Tatum
    Beadle, a geneticist, initially worked with the fruit fly Drosophila in the laboratory of Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University. By 1935 he had developed suggestive evidence that eye color, known to be inherited.Edward L. Tatum, a biochemist, furthered this hypothesis. But the complexity of Drosophila proved a drawback to developing experiments.[http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/timeline/1941_Beadle_Tatum.php]
  • Jacques Cousteau

    Jacques Cousteau
    Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau co-invented the modern demand regulator and an improved autonomous diving suit. In 1942, the team redesigned a car regulator and invented a demand regulator that would automatically fresh air when a diver breathed. A year later in 1943, Cousteau and Gagnan began selling the Aqua-Lung. [http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventors/a/Scuba.htm]
  • Biological Species Concept

    Biological Species Concept
    Defines species for inter breeding. Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that cannot reproduce with other groups that are not like them. Discovered by Ernst Mayr evolutionary biologist. [http://www.bioexplorer.net/biological-species-concept.html/]
  • Avery, Macloed and McCarty

    Avery, Macloed and McCarty
    The experiment was a demonstration how DNA is a molecule that carries genetic information and is not just a protein. There research focused around bacterial DNA and how is caused their transformations of characteristics.[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery%E2%80%93MacLeod%E2%80%93McCarty_experiment]
  • Rosalind Franklin

    Rosalind Franklin
    She was a contributor to the DNA discovery of the double helix alongside Maurice Wilkins. She worked with the x-ray imaging using the crystallography taking shot of images so small to study the shape and structure. She is unaccredited for majority of the work that was done. [http://www.dnaftb.org/19/bio-3.html]
  • Ensatina "ring species"

    Ensatina "ring species"
    Ensatina as a ring species is called that because they are a species of a population meet in one place. These in particular show a range of intermediate forms between two species. And this species has easily been able to show how their bodies change over time according to their environment.
  • Hershey-Chase Experiments

    Hershey-Chase Experiments
    Alfred Hershey and Martha chase were the break through scientists that helped confirm that DNA is genetic material. They showed how DNA appeared simpler than proteins and confirmed DNA was the biomolecule that carried genetic information made up of nucleic acids along side protiens. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hershey%E2%80%93Chase_experiment]
  • Miller-Urey Experiment

    Miller-Urey Experiment
    The miller-Urey experiment was a chemical experiment trying to make it like how the atmosphere was on early earth. It was a way to test how organisms needed to be like to survive those conditions. The experiment included water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller%E2%80%93Urey_experiment]
  • Watson and Crick

    Watson and Crick
    Watson and Crick are the proposers to the double helix model of the DNA structure. Other before them had contributed to the discovery but these two finished the puzzle using x-ray crystallography. It helped them put together how the A T and C G were structured with phosphorous and hydrogen bonds in a ladder shape form.[ http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/discovery-of-dna-structure-and-function-watson-397]
  • Meselson and Stahl

    Meselson and Stahl
    They are the two scientist that discovered DNA replication process. Right after the DNA double helix form became discovered. Meselson and Stahl conducted their famous experiments on DNA replication using E. coli bacteria as a model system. After testes they confirmed their semi conservative model was the one that worked. [https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/dna-as-the-genetic-material/dna-replication/a/mode-of-dna-replication-meselson-stahl-experiment]
  • Nirenberg

    An American biochemist and geneticist who broke the code on describing how protein synthesis works. He found that there is a redundancy in amino acids are encoded by more than one codon in mRNA.[ www.dnaftb.org/22/bio.html]
  • Apollo 11

    Apollo 11
    One giant leap for mankind. Apollo 11 was led by Neil Armstrong who was the first astronaut to step foot on the moon. Apollo 11 was one of the last American space missions at the end of the decade of the space challenges between countries to successfully land humans on the moon.[https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo11.html]
  • "Lucy" (Australopithecus Afarensis)

    "Lucy" (Australopithecus Afarensis)
    Australopithecus means ‘southern ape’ and was originally developed for a species found in South Africa. This is the genus or group name and several closely related species now share this name. The species lived around 4 to 3 million years ago. Lucy was discovered by bits and pieces throughout the 70’s. [http://australianmuseum.net.au/australopithecus-afarensis]
  • Theodosius Dobzhansky questionable evolution

    Theodosius Dobzhansky questionable evolution
    Dobzhansky opens with a critique of Shaikh Abdul Aziz bin Baz, the then Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, for holding a belief based on scripture that the Sun revolves around the Earth. Dobzhansky asserts that "it is ludicrous to mistake the Bible and the Koran for primers of natural science.[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothing_in_Biology_Makes_Sense_Except_in_the_Light_of_Evolution]
  • Spliceosome

    Complex large molecular machine found in splicing speckles of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. Is assembled from snRNA and protein complexes. They remove introns from mRNA to transcribe. They are essential step of the gene expression in which non coding sequences are removed.[ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3119917/]
  • The Sanger Technique

    The Sanger Technique
    A sequencing method used to selectively incorporate chain terminating DNA polymerase during replication. If was developed by Fredrick Sanger his methods remain in large use for long contiguous DNA sequences. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanger_sequencing]
  • Deep Sea Life Discovered

    Deep Sea Life Discovered
    In 1977, scientists exploring the Galápagos Rift along the mid-ocean ridge in the eastern Pacific discovered chemosynthetic ecosystem surrounding submarine hydrothermal vents that create mineral deposits. [https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast13apr_1]
  • Endosymbiosis

    Dr. Lynn Margulis explanation into cell theory explaining the origin of mitochondria and chloroplast. She framed the understanding on evolution of cells with a nucleus. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynn_Margulis]
  • Polymerase Chain of Reaction

    Polymerase Chain of Reaction
    Kary Mullis recognized for his improvement of the PCR technique. The procedure requires placing a small amount of the DNA containing the desired gene into a test tube. A large batch of loose nucleotides, which link into exact copies of the original gene, is also added to the tube. A pair of synthesized short DNA segments, that match segments on each side of the desired gene, is added. [http://siarchives.si.edu/research/videohistory_catalog9577.html]
  • Rapist Convicted on DNA Match

    Rapist Convicted on DNA Match
    As a result of DNA testing and matching experts were able to convict a guilty man of rape a research biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, testified that the DNA in the semen and in Mr. Andrews' blood matched.[ http://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/06/us/rapist-convicted-on-dna-match.html]
  • Drosophila Pseudoobscrura

    Drosophila Pseudoobscrura
    A consequence of reproductive isolation as an adaptive divergence in drosophila pseudoobscrura effects has led to great reduction in the size of their bodies. The small males get less female sexual action. And the females who are small have high mortality rates and get hurt by the big males.[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539013/]
  • The Innocence Project

    The Innocence Project
    A project to help wrongfully convicted people in the criminal justice system through DNA testing for evidence. It is supposed to help convict the right people from the wrong people.[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innocence_Project]
  • Dolly the Sheep

    Dolly the Sheep
    The first successful mammal to be cloned from an adult cell after 277 attempts. She was from Scotland and lived a regular life. Cloning from an adult cell is much more difficult than cloning from an embryonic cell. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/dolly_the_sheep.htm]
  • Sahelanthropus Tchadensis

    Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
    Sahelanthropus Tchadensis is one of the oldest known species that relate to the humans. It is dated at almost 7 million years ago and has ape like features. It had a small brain and moved around in an upright position known by the way the spinal cord exits out of the head.[http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/sahelanthropus-tchadensis]
  • Human Genome

    Human Genome
    The human genome was fully sequenced on April 14th 2003. All of the exact orders of the base pairs in the segment of the 300,000,000 pairs in humans had finally been completed. Scientist used a method called HGP to produce the finished version creating a genetic code map.[https://www.genome.gov/11006943/human-genome-project-completion-frequently-asked-questions/
  • CRISPR- Cas9

    CRISPR- Cas9
    CRISPR-Cas9 is a unique technology that enables geneticists and medical researchers to edit parts of the genome by removing, adding or altering sections of the DNA sequence. An enzyme called Cas9 acts as a pair of ‘molecular scissors’ that can cut the two strands of DNA at a specific location in the genome so that bits of DNA can then be added or removed. [http://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-crispr-cas9 ]
  • Denisova Hominin

    Denisova Hominin
    A member if the Homo Genus family who occupied a vast region of Siberia. On March 2010 the scientist discovered a finger bone piece that dated back to 41,000 years ago in a remote Denisova cave. It is a distinct member of the Neanderthals. [http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/origins/denisova_hominin.php]
  • Richard Bible

    Executed in 2011 for proper conviction of rape and murder to a child due to DNA matches found on him and the crime scene. Disgusting bastard. [http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/death/US/bible1259.htm]
  • Deep Sea Challenger

    Deep Sea Challenger
    Deep Sea Challenger is one-of-a-kind innovative materials, including a highly sophisticated syntactic foam developed specifically to withstand the pressure at the bottom of the ocean. The discovery of microbial mats weird looking filament like clumps of microorganisms living off chemicals from altered rocks 35,803 feet beneath the surface of the Pacific Ocean comes from samples and video collected by the DSC.[ http://www.livescience.com/25262-cameron-expedition-deepsea-life.html]