Uses life history biotechnology robert bud paperback cover art

History of Biotechnolgy

  • First Look at Cells

    First Look at Cells
    Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" and Antonie Van leeuwenhoek observed the first micro organisms.
  • Inheritance of Traits

    Inheritance of Traits
    Gregor Mendel, Discovered the simple laws of inheritance of traits.
  • Fermentation

    Louis pasteur described the scientific basis for fermentation, Alcohol making, microbiology, Gem theory
  • Beginnings of DNA

    Beginnings of DNA
    Johann Miescher found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus bandages. Later led scientistd to believe DNA is th einheritable material of an organism
  • Genes on Chromosomes

    Genes on Chromosomes
    Thomas morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes from studying fruit flys.
  • Bacteria and Genetic Material

    Bacteria and Genetic Material
    Fred Grifith used mice to prove that genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another
  • Penicillin

    Sir Alexander Fleming isolated penicillin from a fungus .
  • Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine

    Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
    Chargaff showed that DNA the number of units of adenine equaled thymine adn the number of units of cytosine equaled guanine
  • One Gene Produces one Enzyme

    One Gene Produces one Enzyme
    Beadle and Tatum proposed the "One gene producess one enzyme" hypothesis.
  • Blender Experiment

    Blender Experiment
    Using their famous blender experiment Hershey and Chase provided viruses replicated using DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the hereditary material.
  • X-ray Crystallogrqaphy

    X-ray Crystallogrqaphy
    Rosiland, Franklin, and Maurice wikings established through x-ray crystallography that DNA was indeed a double helix
  • Structure of DNA

    Structure of DNA
    Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA.
  • Plasmid DNA

    Plasmid DNA
    Hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria
  • Messenger RNA

    Messenger RNA
    Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression.
  • Bacterial Restriction

    Bacterial Restriction
    Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restiction enzymes that cut DNA.
  • 64 Condons

    64 Condons
    Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 condons (the triplet code of 3 bases in DNA)
  • Plasimids Isolated

    Plasimids Isolated
    DNa plasmids were isolated and purified by Vinograd
  • Escherichia coli

    Escherichia coli
    Madel and Higa were responisble for the first transformation of the becterium Escherichia coli.
  • Cloning

    Cloning experiments were conducted by Boyer and Cohen.
  • Genetech

    Genetech, the worlds first genetic engineering company, was founded.
  • Recombinant DNA

    Recombinant DNA
    140 scientists met to draw up guidlines for work with recombinant DNA in microorganisms.
  • Sequence DNA

    Sequence DNA
    Sanger and Gilbert found a way to sequence DNA. Given an uknown piece of DNA.
  • Synthetic Insulin

    Synthetic Insulin
    Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E. coli
  • Vitro Fertilization

    Vitro Fertilization
    Louise Joy Brown was born, the first human baby resulting from vitro fertilization.
  • Restriction Frangment Length Polymorphism

    Restriction Frangment Length Polymorphism
    Botstein found that one could be identified by the pattern amade by their DNA through digest by different enzymes.
  • Altered Life Forms

    Altered Life Forms
    The USSC ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented.
  • Transgenic Animals

    Transgenic Animals
    Ohio university made the first transgenetic animals.
  • Eli Lily

    Eli Lily
    Eli lily company placed a human insulin gene insided bacteria.
  • Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer
    Schell, Chilton, Van Amontagu, and Horsch transformed plants with Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.
  • PCR

    Kary Mullis invented PCR
  • RFLP in DNA

    RFLP in DNA
    Jeffries applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases
  • Flourescence sequencer was invented

    Flourescence sequencer was invented
    Flourescence sequencer was invented, speeding up the labor-intense process.
  • Gene Gun

    Gene Gun
    Genes were moved into an organism through the use of a gene gun.
  • NIH Safety

    NIH Safety
    NIH revised saftey guidlines for recombinant DNA to include plants grown in greenhouses and animals raised in barns.
  • RNA Interference

    RNA Interference
    Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, silencing of genes, in the worm C. elegans
  • MAb Technology

    MAb Technology
    Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody technology.
  • YACs

    Maynard Olson and colleagues at Washington University invented YACs.
  • Dolly the Sheep

    Dolly the Sheep
    Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of ewe.
  • DNA chip technology

    DNA chip technology
    DNA microrray (DNA chip) technology, looking at the expression of all the genes of an organism at one time
  • Automated DNA sequencer

    Automated DNA sequencer
    Dabri and Garner invented an automated DNA sequencer that had a capability of squencing 76,800 base pairs per hour.
  • Riboswitch

    Ron Breaker coined the term rioboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    Announcement was made of the completion of the Human Genome Project.