Classroom management teacher reading to children

History of Literacy Research

  • 200

    Neuroscientific Contributions

    Neuroscientific Contributions
    Theorist: Goswami

    In the 21st Century, neuroscience has been implicated in reading in a variety of ways. Goswami believes neuroscience, " will be used increasingly for the early diagnosis of children in need of special education and in the study of the effects of varying interventions on learners of all ages and abilitie," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012). With the use of brain images, neuroscientist can assist with pinpointing deficits students may have in reading and education.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Mental Discipline Theory

    Mental Discipline Theory
    Mental Discipline Theory - 20,000 BCE to 400 BCE
    Plato and Aristotle contributed to this theory; stating that the mind needs exercise and focusing on rote memorization, drill and skill.

    According to Tracy and Morrow (2012),"Mental Discipline Theory is an example of Plato and Aristotle's work that has widely permeated the educational and psychological literature for approximately 2,500 years."
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Associationism 400 BCE - 300 BCE

    Associationism 400 BCE - 300 BCE
    " Associationism examines how events or ideas can become associated with one another in the mind, to result in a form of learning" ( Sternberg, 1996, p.9 in Tracey & Morrow, 2002, p 20). Aristotle is the theorist behind associationism believing that there were three types of association, contiguity, belief that things occur in together in time or space become associated, similarity,people associate things that have similar features and properties, and contrast association of opposites
  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to


  • The Horn Book

    The Horn Book
    The Horn Book was considered the first book used in the education system. The horn book had lessons written on parchment paper which were placed on a wooden board. Early lessons consisted of the alphabet,vowel and consonant combinations and the Lord's prayer. Students carried Hornbooks with them to and from school.
  • The New England Primer

    The New England Primer
    The first textbook used in Colonial America, the New England Primer was used for beginning and intermediate readers. The alphabet was prevelant in the New England Primer and from there lessons moved to a religious/moral theme. The New England Primer was published by Benjamen Harris who was a bookstore owner.
  • Unfoldment Theory

    Unfoldment Theory
    Rousseau was the leading theorist of Unfoldment Theory. According to Tracey& Morrow (2012), Unfoldment Theory states,"children's learning would evolve naturally as a result of their innate curiousity."
    As an advocate of self mastery, Rousearu thought challenges offered opportunities for personal growth.
    1700 - 1800
  • American Spelling Book

    American Spelling Book
    Noah Webster was instrumental in developing the American Spelling Book in the 1700's. Taught spelling, reading, American government and morality lessons. Was very popular amoung readers.
  • McGuffey Reader

    McGuffey Reader
    The McGuffey Reader was the first reader/basal. Concentrated on the phonics method, word method, and word and phonics combined. Written in short passages and also concentrated on comprehension. (Tracey & Morrow, 2012)
  • Structuralism

    Theorists: Wundt, Cattell, Javal, Quantz, Dearborn
    According to Tracy & Morrow, (2012) "Psychologists focused on reading as a perceptial process, primarily measuring perception of print through reaction time studies, or eye-voic span, speed of reading and lip movements during silent reading." Structuralism centered around perception of print rather than comprehension of literacy.
  • Period: to

    Structuralism and Early Scientific Foundations of Reading

    "Structuralism, which is usually thought of as the first major school in psychology, sougt to explain the structure of the mind through the study of perception" (Jones & Elcock, 2001 as stated in Tracey&Morrow, 2012).
    Huey's The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading, which examined reading rate, perception meaning, history was published during this time. "Reading as Thinking" was prevalent during this time. There was an increase in attendance in schoo lwith the concept of Universal Education
  • The First Standardized Tests

    The First Standardized Tests
    The first standardized tests began during the time period between 1910 and 1920. More factual material was taught in school and students were reading for information.
  • Classical Conditioning Theory

    Classical Conditioning Theory
    Theorists: Pavlov and Watson
    According to Tracy & Morrow (2012), " Classical conditioning occurs when two stimuli become paired, eventually eliciting the same response."
    This theory suggests that students can have strong responses or reactions to literacy in the classroom depending on what they associate literacy to either negatively or positively.
  • Connectionism

    Theorist: Thorndike
    Four Laws as identified by Thorndike are instrumental to this theory, " Law of Effect: if a student enjoys a situation they will repeat, Law of Readiness: learning is facilitated when easier tasks preced those that are related but more difficult, Law of Identical Elements: the more elements are the same to another, the greater the transfer and Law of Exercise: more stimulus-response connections are practiced, the stronger the bonds become," (Tracy & Morrow, 2012)
  • Inquiry Learning

    Inquiry Learning
    Theorists: Dewey
    According to Tracey & Morrow(2012), "the curriculum emphasizes the development of students' cognitive abilities, such as reasoning and decision making." Inquiry learning is most often called problem based learning and uses student motivation to assist in driving instruction. Science curriculum often uses inquiry learning, however, this process can also be used in literacy instruction.
  • Transactional/Reader Response Theory

    Transactional/Reader Response Theory
    Theorist: Rosenblatt
    Transactional Theory states that each reader will have a different reaction to reading depending on their background knowledge or schema. "Efferent response to reading is fact based. Aesthetic response to reading are personally and emotional based,"(Tracey & Morrow, 2012).
  • Theory of Cognitive Development

    Theory of Cognitive Development
    Theorist: Piaget
    Piaget describe children's learning over time through his four stages of cognitive development. According to Tracey & Morrow (2012), the four stages are: sensorimotor(birth - 2yrs) where children uses their senses to explore his world, pre-operational (2-7), where rapid language development occurs, concrete operational (7 -10 yrs), where children begin to think abstractly, and formal operational (11 - adult) where children move to abstract concepts.
  • Maturation Theory

    Maturation Theory
    Theorists: Morphett and Washburn
    Research by Morphett and Washburn asserted that,"children with a mental age of 6.5 years did better on a test of reading achievement than di younger children," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012).

    The theory in essence states that formal literacy teaching should not begin until the age of 6.5, thus parents should not attempt to teach reading to children until educational services began.
  • Schema Theory

    Schema Theory
    Theorist: Bartlett
    "According to the Schema Theory,people organize everything they know into schemeta, or knowledge sturctures," (Gunning, 2010 in Tracey &Morrow, 2012). This theory states learning is individualized, pliant, and expandable. Identified by three processes including: accretation, tuning and restructuring.
  • Operant Conditioning

    Operant Conditioning
    Theorist: B.F. Skinner
    Skinner believed students learned through programed learning/instruction. "Programed instruction is usually implemented through the use of behavioral objectives," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012) A behavioral object is a behavior that needs to be changed through the use of reinforcements on a schedule.
  • Psycholinguistic

    Theorist: Smith and Goodman
  • Critical Literacy Theory

    Critical Literacy Theory
    Theorist: Freire
    According to Tracey & Morrow (2012), " Critical Literacy Theory considers the political aspects of literacy education such as the ways in which schooling reinforces persistent inequalities in contemporary society, and the opportunities that exist with education to empower individuals to overcome such socilal oppression,"( Morris, 2011). Banduara studied low income education in Brazil and founded the concept of "pedagogy of oppression." keeping low income students in poverty.
  • Whole Language Theory

    Whole Language Theory
    Theorist: Goodman
    According to Tracey & Morrow, " Whole Language Theory suggests taht reading, like oral language, is a natural process that children will acquire if immersed in high-quality literacy environments and exposed to meaningful , authentic literacy experiences and high quality literature," (2012).
    This is an instructional strategy that is child centered and does not necessarily use basals but higher quality literature.
  • Engagement Theory

    Engagement Theory
    Theorists: Guthrie and Wigfield
  • Sociolinguistic Theory

    Sociolinguistic Theory
    Theorist: Bernstein
    Sociolinguistic is rooted in the fields of anthropology, linguistics, and literary analysis. Sociolinguistics states, " the ability to read is related to social functioning, that goals related to social functioning, that is that individuals learn to read as a ameans to accomplish personal goals related to basic life functioning," ( Tracey & Morrow, 2012).
  • Socio-Cultural Theory

    Socio-Cultural Theory
    Theorist:Moll and Bronfenbrenner
    According to Tracey & Morrow (2012), "Children's literacy development is understood by exploring the cultural, social, and historical contexts in which the children have grown." Socio-cultural Theory is influenced by four spheres; microsystem which is the child's enviornment, mesosystem which is schools, peers etc, exosystem which is community or national influences, and macrosystem which is the combination of families and cultural influences.
  • Social Constructivism

    Social Constructivism
    Theorist: Lev Vygotsky
    According to Tracey & Morrow (2012), " The premise of Vygotsky's work is the befief that children learn as a result of their social interactions with others." Vygotsky also introduced the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development which is " the level at which a child can be successful with appropriate support, " ( Temple et al., 2011, Tracey & Morrow, 2012). Vygotsky believed in scaffolding to assist students in their learning.
  • Social Learning Theory

    Social Learning Theory
    Theorist: Albert Bandura
    Also known as Social Cognitive Theory,this theory states that people learn from observing others or through vicarious learning. Bandura stated that there were four stages to this theory - The attentional phase where the observer watches, retention phase where the observer thinks about the observation, reproduction phase, where the observer repeats the observation and the reinforcement phase where observer repeats observation.
  • Automatic Information-Processing Model

    Automatic Information-Processing Model
    Theorist: LaBerge and Samuels
    Characterized by five components, the Automatic information processing model, includes using visual memory to process information, phonological memory where sounds are put with visual cues, episodic memory where context is recorded, semantic memory where information is stored and attention, both internal and external, where information is directly observable or unobservable. According to LaBerge -Samuels, this is how children learn. (Tracery & Morrow, 2012)
  • Metacognitive Theory

    Metacognitive Theory
    Theorist: Flavell and Brown
    According to Tracey & Morrow, " Metacognition is the process of thinking about one's own thinking," (2012). Before metacognition theory, theorists noted a dependence of students on teachers for their thinking. "Not only has research demonstrated the effective use of metacognitive strategies by good readers, it has also consistently shown that poor readers have far less metacognitive awareness tha their higher achieving peers, ( Tracey & Morrow, 2012).
  • Gough's Model

    Gough's Model
    Theorist: Phillip Gough
    Gough's Model is known as 'bottoms up' because information is obtained from lower to higher order stages. Characterized by stages including, iconic image where the eye captures the printed text, character register where the image is stored, decoder where the processing begins, code book where phonemes are attached to letters, phonemic tape where sounds are attached, librarian where meaning occurs, primary memory for meaning is formed.
  • Theory of Literacy Development

    Theory of Literacy Development
    Theorist: Holdaway
    According to Tracey and Morrow(2012), "Learning to read is viewed as a natural developmental occurance."This theory states that learning to read begins at home with parents modeling reading and encouraging children to read from the beginning of their reading experiences. Recommendations from Holdaway for instruction include a literacy rich classroom enviornment, labeling items in the room, encouragement and high quality literature.
  • Interactive and Interactive-Compensatory Models

    Interactive and Interactive-Compensatory Models
    Theorist: Rumelhart and Stanovich
  • Phonological -Core Variable Difference

    Phonological -Core Variable Difference
    Theorist: Stanovich
  • Family Literacy Theory

    Family Literacy Theory
    Theorist: Taylor
  • Emergent Literacy Theory

    Emergent Literacy Theory
    Theorist: Clay
  • Third Space Theory

    Third Space Theory
    Theorist: Lefebvre
    "According to Third Space Theory, the concept of "space" can be viewed not only as a physical concept but also as a mental construct," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012). Three spaces are unique to this theory- First Space is ones own knowledge based on home, peers etc, Second Space is influenced by outside elements i.e. school, work etc. Third Space is a combination of First and Second Space that assists in forming knowledge for the information.
  • Double Deficit Hypothesis

    Double Deficit Hypothesis
    Theorists: Wolf and Bowers
    This hypothesis attempts to explain reading disabilities. According to Tracey & Morrow, " many reading-disabled children also suffer from a a deficit in rapid naming skills. Children with this deficit are less able to rapidly recite names of colors when shown pictures of colored blocks, less able to rapidly name objects when shown pictures and less able to rapidly name letters and numbers when shown strings of such print."
  • Parallel Distributed Processing Model/Connectionism

    Parallel Distributed Processing Model/Connectionism
    Theorists: Seidenberg and McClelland
    According to Tracey & Morrow, " Two central features of the Parallel Distributed Processing Modle are (1) that all cognitive infomationis stored as a series of connections between units, and (2) that these connections between units become stronger and faster with repeated pairings," (2012), This model has four portions to reading 1. orhographic processing, phonological processing , meaning processing and context processing.
  • Dual Route Cascade Model

    Dual Route Cascade Model
    Theorists: Colheart and Rastle
    The Dual Route Cascade Model is defined by two routes; " The lexile route first identifies a word as familiar, and then processes the word as a whole, immediately providing the reader/computer with the word's correct meaning and pronunciation and the non-lexical route which is based on a letter to sound rule procedure," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012).