Jan 1, 1000
Mental Discipline Theory400 B.C.E.
"The mind lies dormant until it is exercised," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 19).
Drill and practice, repetition, memorization, sequentially organized skills from easiest to hardest
Jan 1, 1000
"How events or ideas can become associated with one another in the mind, to result in a form of learning," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 20)
Three kinds of associations:
Contiguity -occurring together in time or space
Similarity - similar features
Prior knowledge is important
Contrast - opposites
Period: Jan 1, 1000 to
Early Literacy Theories400 BCE - 1899
Theories providing earliest foundation: Mental Discipline Theory, Associationism, Unfoldment Theory, and Structuralism
Johan Amos Comenius"First fully illustrated reading book and the beginning of the word method in teaching reading," (Sadoski, 2004, p. 16).
Decoding and comprehension
New England PrimerColonial America
"Along with the Bible, it was one of the most common books in colonial America," (Sadoski, 204, p. 18).
Natural unfolding of the mind based on individual couriosity and interest
"Educators should follow children's lead regarding what and when they want to learn," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 24).
American Spelling and Behavior BookNoah Webster
Mental Discipline Theory
Most widely used textbook
"Designed to introduce spelling and reading, teach grammar, and provide lessons for advanced reading and elocution," (Sadoski, 2004, p. 20).
McGuffy ReadersCarefully graded leveled readers
Increased emphasis on meaning and comprehension
Horace MannVisited European schools and disagreed with teaching in America
New readers were developed with concern for interests and attitudes of children
"Structuralism sought to explain the structure of the mind through the study of perception," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 28).
No attention to comprehension
Sentence MethodGeorge L. Farnham
"Sentences were taught as wholes and later analyzzed into words and letters," (Sadoski, 2004, p.25).
Synthetic MethodRebecca Lollard
Sounds of letters should be taught first using songs and mental images
Story MethodChalres W. Eliot
"Children would memorize, dramatize, and finally read the stories," (Sadoski, 2004, p.27)
Used childrens literature to teach reading
"The Little Red Hen"
"Three Billy Goats Gruff"
BehaviorismBehavioralism dominant Perspective
Activity ApproachFrancis Parker
label the names of objects of interest to children
"reading is thinking, not the pronunciation of words," (Parker as cited in Sadoski, 2004, p. 26).
Emphasized meaning and comprehension
Behaviorism; Classical and Operant ConditioningWatson, Skinner, Pavlov
focuses on observable changes in behavior
"Behaviorism changed the depiction of reading from one of perceptual processing to one of reading as a behavior composed of isolated skills, each of which could be reinforced to increase students achievement" (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.41).
Emphasized direct instruction
Classical Conditioning - positive/negative consequences shape behavior
Operant Conditioning - Instruction broken down into small successive steps; basal readers
Standardized Tests1915 First standardized tests in reading
Gray's Standardized Oral Reading Paragraphs
Found silent reading was superiorto oral reading in both speed and comprehension (Sadoski, 2004, p. 29)
1917 Thorndike's Measure of Reading Comprehension
1920 - PresentConstructivism
"Theory of learning that emphasizes the active construction of knowledge by individuals," (Gunning as cited in Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 57).
Individuals integrate new knowldege with existing knowledge
Learning is a result of hypothesis testing experiences by the individual
William S. Gray
New Basic Basal Reader
Dick and Jane
Controlled introduction of sight words
Transactional TheoryRosenblatt (1930s, 1970s)
Every reading experience is unique to each individual
"The meanining does not reside ready-made in the text or in the reader but comes into being during the transaction between reader and text," (Rosenblatt, 2005, p.7)
"Efferent responses are fact oriented while aesthetic responses are personally and emotionally based," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 66)
Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget (1930s, 1970s)
"Provides educators with a general understanding of hte ways in which children at different levels of maturity are likely to think, and of the relationship between cognitive and literacy development," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 200).
Theories of Literacy Development
MaturationMorphett and Washburne
Followed Unfoldment Theory
Advocated that reading instruction should not take place until the age of 6.5 years.
Dominent theory from 1930-1950, but no longer followed.
Operant ConditioningB.F. Skinner
"Instruction is carefully broken down into small, successive steps," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 46.
Positive and negative cosnsequences to shape behavior
Why Johnny Can't Read and What You Can Do About ItRudolf Flesch
Condemned the look-say approach and called for a return to phonics
Inquiry LearningJohn Dewey 1930s - 1960s
based on Unfoldment Theory
"emphasized growth of the individual, the importance of the environment, and the role of the teacher in students' learning," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 59)
Emphasized problem based learning approach
Information Processing Theories1960s-1970s
Atkinson and Shiffrin
"Information moves through different stages, or storage systems, as it is processed, reflected upon, learned, saved, and retrieved," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 152).
Social Learning Perspectives
Emergent Literacy TheoryMarie Clay1960s - 1980s
"refers to a period in a child's life between birth and when the child can read and write at a conventional (approximately third-grade) level," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.99).
Home factors effect reading
"Children's development in the areas of listening, speaking, reading, and writing are all interrelated," (Morrow as cited in Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 99).
Psycholinguistic TheoryGoodman and Smith, Late 1960s - 1970s
"The study of relationships between linguistic behavior and psychological processes, incuding the process of language acquisition," (Stevenson & Lindberg, 2010 as cited in Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 68).
Assumes reading is a lanugage process
"Readers rely on language cueing systems to help them rapidly read text," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 68)
Engagement TheoryGuthrie and Wigfield 1970s - 2000s
"Engaged readers are those who are intrinsically motivated to read and who therefore read frequently," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 75)
Contains elements of Metacognitive Theory
Themes, student choice, hands on activities, text genres, social collaboration
Sociolinguistic TheoryBernstein 1970s
"Believe that oral lanugage is the foundation upon which children's reading and writing achievement is built," (Apel & Masterson; Snow, Burns, & Griffin as cited in Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 119)
Emphasizes rold of individual's language in reading ability
Critical Literacy TheoryFreire 1970s
Considers political aspects of literacy instruction
"Concept of power in relation to literacy learning," ( Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.134).
Social ConstructivismVygotsky 1970s
Zone of Proximal Development
"Belief that children learn as a result of their social interactions with others," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.127)
Social Learning TheoryBandura 1970s
"People learn more from observing others than they do from the consequences of experiencing things themselves," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.130)
Promotes literacy centers and modeling
Whole Language TheoryGoodman and Smith 1970s
"Reading is a natural process that children will acquire if immersed in high-quality literacy environments," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 70)
Authentic, high-quality literature
promoted active, social interactions
Metacognitive TheoryFlavell (1976)
Thinking about one's thinking
"self monitoring, self regulating activities, focussing on the proecess and product of reading," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 71).
Explicit instruction of metacognitive techniques
"To model a literacy concept, skill, or strategy, we must show children how it is to be done, using lots of talking out loud about our thinking as teachers (Oczkus as cited in Morrow & Gambrell, 2011, p, 417).
Gradual release of responsibility
Transactional TheoryRosenblatt 1930s -1970s
Every reading experience is unique to each individual.
Efferent response - "is centered predominantly on what is to be extracted and retained after the reading event," (Rosenblatt, 2005, p.11)
Aesthetic response - "perception through the senses, feelings, and intuitions," (Rosenblatt, 2005, p.11).
"Learning to read begins in the home when children first see their parents read and have stories read to them," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 95).
Advocates peer interaction, big books, shared reading
"Emphasizes the role of social, cultural, and historical factors in the human experience," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 123).
Four spheres 0 microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem
Stage Models of Reading1980s
"As children's reading skills develop, they increase both the number and type of strategies that they can use during reading experiences," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.97).
Alphabetic (logographic) Stage
Partial Alphabetic Stage
Full Alphabetic Stage
Consolidated Alphabetic Stage
Family Literacy TheoryTaylor
"The ways families, children, and extended family members use literacy at home and in their community," (Morrow as cited in Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 102).
Emphasizes parental involvement and positive parent/teacher interactions
Schema TheoryBartlett (1930s)
Anderson and Pearson (1984)
Readers have schemata for reading processes
"People organize everything they know into schema, or knowledge structures," (Gunning as cited in Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 62).
Teaching applications include brainstorming, building background knowledge, and monitoring comprehension
Schema are individualized
Webbing, brainstorming, KWL
Third Space TheoryLefebvre and Soja 1990s
First space - knowledge of home, family, and peers
Second space - knowledge of school, work church
"Individuals also construct a "third space" for themselves that result from the intersections of the influences fo first and second spaces," (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p.135).