History of Literacy

By hjw101
  • 100

    Plato & Aristotle

    Plato & Aristotle
    Plato 428-347 B.C.E.
    Aristotle 384-322 B.C.E.
    "Among his many writings on a variety of subjects, Plato debeloped a theory, later elaborated by Aristotle, that the mind is like a muscle - its various parts, or faculties, need to be exercised regularly in order to become strong and function optimally" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Period: 100 to 500

    Mental Disciplin Theory

  • Period: 476 to Jan 1, 1500

    Middle Ages

  • Apr 9, 1450

    Horn Book

    Horn Book
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    Associationism

    "Assiciationism is a theory of psychology and education that is decoted to the study of how learning occurs. Associationism examines how events or ideas can become associated with one another in the mind, to result in a form of learning" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Bible

    Bible
    “After learning to read with the primer, the student would advance directly to the Bible” (Sadoski, 2004).
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    "This theory suggests that people are born without any internal, innate knowledge. All learning results as a consequence of the individual's interactions with the environment, especially sensory interactions. Humans can expand upon their experiences by the active process of reflection." (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • New England Primer

    New England Primer
  • Period: to

    Unfoldment

    "Learning was best facilitated through a natual unfolding of the mind based on individual curisoty and engagement" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Rousseau (Unfoldment)

    Rousseau (Unfoldment)
    "Adults should intervene as little as possible in children's education, and instead just let children unfold" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Pestalozzi (Unfoldment)

    Pestalozzi (Unfoldment)
    "In addition to natural unfolding, children needed informal instruction from adults to facilitate their learning. Using these ideas, Pestalozzi created a philosophy of child-centered learning, and built two schools to implement his ideas" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Noah Webster American Spelling Book

    Noah Webster American Spelling Book
  • Horace Mann

    Horace Mann
    The Common School Journal
  • Period: to

    Structuralism

    "Structuralism, is usually thought of as the first major school in psychology, sought to explain the structure of the mind through the studey of perception. Thus reading was first studied throughperception research designed to explain general psychological functioning rather than to explain reading in and of itself" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Cognitive Processing Theory

    "From the late 1800's through the early 1900's, psychologists focused on reading as a perceptual process, primarily measuring perception of print (i.e., single letters, words) through reaction time studies, or focused on areas such as eye-voice span, speed of reading, and lip movements during silent reading" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Quantz

    Quantz
    *1st to identify the concept of "eye-voice span" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Period: to

    Behaviorism

    "Behaviorism is a theoretical perspective of learning that focuses on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism arose as a theoretical response to theories of Mentalism, such as the Psychoanalytic Theory advocated by Freud" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Huey

    Huey
    The Psycology and Pedagogy of Reading ~ examined perception, reading rate, subcovalization, the nature of meaning, and the history of reading and reading instruction.
  • Standarized Testing

    Standarized Testing
  • Period: to

    Connectionism

    "Thorndike extended the study of Behaviorism by showing that "stimuli that occured after a behavior also had an influence on future behaviors" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Period: to

    Constructivism

    "Constructivism in a theory of learning that emphasizes the active construction of knowledge by individuals. From a constructivist viepoint, learning occurs when individuals integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Period: to

    Inquiry Learning

    "Inquiry Learning was designed, first and foremost, to produce involved citizens capable of successfully participating in and contributing t oa democratic society" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Classical Conditioning Theory

    "Classical conditioning occurs when two stimuli become paired, eventually both eliciting the same response" (Cambourne, 2002).
  • Pavlov

    Pavlov
    "Pavlov created Classical Conditioning Theory as a result of his research studying dogs in the 1920's. During his research Pavlov noted that his dogs began to salicate at the sight of their food bowls, even when the bowls were empty. Pavlov suggested that the dogs were salivating because they associated the presence of their dishes with the arrival of their dinners. In other words, the dogs had learned through association to connect their food bowls with their dinners" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • John Dewey

    John Dewey
    "Dewey emphasized the growth of the individual, the importance of the environment, and the role of the teacher in students' learning. Dewey's philosophy of education became known as Inquiry Learning" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Operant Conditioning Theory

    *Programed learning - small step instructions that maximize student success and minimize frustration.
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    Schema Theory

    "According to the Schema Theory, people organize everthing they know into schemata, or knowledge structures. People have schemata for everything in their lives including people, places, things, language, process. and skills" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Skinner

    Skinner
    "Skinner continued Pavlov and Watson's work on the importance of association in learning. He also advanced Thorndike's work regarding the relationships between behavior and its consequences by conducting research on the use of reinforcement and punishment in changing behavior. He is especially known for his work on the effects of variations of schedules of reinforcements and punishments" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Sociolinguistics

    "Sociolinguistics is rooted in the fields of anthropology, linguistics, and literary analysis. Anthropology provided the perspective that reading and writing could be viewed as cultural events" (Cambourne, 2002).
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    Family Literacy Theory

    Family Literacy Theory overlaps with Emergent Literacy Theory regarding the ways in which at-home experiences contribute to children's literacy success. It also extends previous conceptualizations of literacy learning by emphasizing the critical role that parents and parent involvement have on children's literacy development" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Piaget

    Piaget
    "Piaget's theory provides literacy educatiors with a framework for understanding how students at different developmental points are likely to thinkg" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Socio-Cultural Theory

    "Socio-Cultural Theory emphasizes the roles of social, cultural, and historical factors in the human experience. Socio-Cultural Theory is similar to Sociolinguistics because both emphasize the social aspect of learning, but Sociolinguistics focus more on the language aspects of these interactions, while Socio-Cultural Theory focuses more on the broader concept of culture, which includes, but is not limited to language" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Social Constructivism

    "The premise of Vygotsky's work is the belief that children learn as a result of their social interactions with others.The development depends on the sign systems with which individuals grow up" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
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    Whole Language

    "Whole Language Theory is a philosophy about how children learn from which educators derive strategies for teaching. The philosophy encompasses and extends Psycholinguistics Theory. It also suggests that reading is a natural process that children will acquire if immersed in high-quality literacy environments" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Flavell & Brown

    Flavell & Brown
    "Flavell and Brown studied the development of children's ability to be aware of and control their own cognitive processes, and introduced the general concept of metacognition in the mid-1970s" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Bronfenbrenner

    Bronfenbrenner
    "Bronfenbrenner posits that concentric levels of influence affect children's development. Bronfenbrenner suffests that these layers of influence can be imagined as a set of nested structures, each inside the next, like a set of Russian dolls" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Vygotsky

    Vygotsky
    *His work became famous about 40 years after his death.
    *Sign Systems - Include a culture's language, writing and counting system.
    *Scaffolding - Refers to the assistance that adults and more competent peers provide during learning episodes.
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    Social Learning Theory

    "The general theory of human behavior combines features of Behaviorism with those of social learning" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Bandura

    Bandura
    There are four stages to observational learning.
    1. Attentional phase
    2. Retention phase
    3. Reproduction phase
    4. Reinforcement phase
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    Third Space Theory

    "According to Third Space Theory, the concept of space can be viewed not only as a physical concept but also as a mental construct." (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
    1st Space - individuals knowledge
    2nd Space - more removed influences
    3rd Space - invisible, internal environment
  • Soja/Lefebvre

    Soja/Lefebvre
    1st Space - contains an individual's knowledges and discourses that are most personal.
    2nd Space - contains the more removed influences in the individual's life.
    3rd Space - results from the intersections of influences of first and second spaces.
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    Engagement Theory

    " The Engagement Theory seeks to articulate the differences between engaged and disengaged readers, and to provide direction to educators on how to help students become more engaged" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).
  • Guthrie

    Guthrie
    "Guthrie created Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). This approach to reading instruction has five major components. Research on the effects of CORI indicates that students involved with this program demonstrate increased motivation for reading, increased use of metacognitive skills, and increased gains in conceptual knowledge" (Tracy & Morrow, 2012).