History of Instructional Design

Timeline created by bjanzen
  • Instructional Film

    Instructional Film
    The first catalogue of instructional films was published. Image: http://tinyurl.com/3ndvqr3
  • Period: to

    History of Instructional Design

  • Behaviorism

    John Watson develops his Behaviorist concept in which he believed that all humans and animals respond to situations based on the way their brains were wired and on the experiences of the individual. Understanding behavior could lead to behaivour modification.
    Image: http://tinyurl.com/3b9j6kq
  • Pressey's Teaching Machine

    Pressey's Teaching Machine
    Pressy Wrote: "Teaching machines are unique among instructional aids, in that the student not merely passively listen, watches, or reads but actively responds. And as he does so he finds out whether his response is correct or not. And a record may be kept which aids in improving the materials."
  • National Professional Organization for Visual Instruction

    National Professional Organization for Visual Instruction
    Image/Source Today this organization is known as the Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
  • F.W.Taylor

    SourceHe asserted that taasks can be broken down into a list of competencies based on their componant elements. Image: http://tinyurl.com/3eobffc
  • World War II

    World War II
    Instructional Design, like so many other innovations, found its origins in war time. Psychologists and Educators in WWII were required to develop effective and efficient training materials for soldiers and systems for evaluating suitability of individuals for different programs within the military. After the war the concept of training and education began to be seen as the development of a system that incorporated analysis, design and evaluation.
  • Jean Piaget - Cognitivism

    Jean Piaget - Cognitivism
    Publishes work on Cognitivism: learning should be based on objective principles developed from scientific research.
  • B. F. Skinner - Behaviorism

    B. F. Skinner - Behaviorism
    Image/SourceDuring the 50's and 60's B.F. Skinner's theories on effective learning, which included a series of small learning steps with frequent feedback, became the popular school of thought in instruction. This process is called Programmed Instruction involves many of the current steps in Instructional Design.
  • Benjamin Bloom- Three Domains of Learning

    Benjamin Bloom- Three Domains of Learning
    Image/Link Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)
    Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)
    Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
  • Robert Mager - Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction

    Robert Mager - Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction
    In the early 60's Robert Mager wrote Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction (1962) which contains three elements of modern instructional design: 1. desired learning behaviors (Objectives)
    2. conditions under which behaviors are to be performed (Strategies)
    3. standards by which the behaviors are to be judged (Assessment)
    Image: http://www.cepworldwide.com/Bios/mager.htm
  • Robert Glaser - Criterion-referenced measures

    Robert Glaser - Criterion-referenced measures
    Criterion-referenced measures. Compares student knowledge students' knowledge before and after instruction.
    Instructional Goals [system objectives]
    Entering Behavior [system input]
    Instructional Procedures [system operator]
    Performance Assessments [output monitor].
  • Robert Gagne - Task Analysis

    Robert Gagne - Task Analysis
    Learning Theory
    Describes the analysis of learning objectives and connects them to appropriate instructional design.
    image: http://tinyurl.com/3zjnnqe
  • Systems Theory and Systematic Instructional Design

    Systems Theory and Systematic Instructional Design
    Learning is enhanced by using a system of instruction based on behaviorist and cognitive learning theories.
    During this decade instructional improvement was focused on using media and instructional design practices.
    Instructional Design grew rapidly in many different sectors.
    Image: http://tinyurl.com/3ze78tf
  • Micro-computers

    This decade featured continued success of the Instructional Design Field with the introduction of the micro-computer. Further interest grew in the connection between cognitive psychology and instructional design. The advent of computers allowed designers to automate some design tasks. Image: http://tinyurl.com/3ujmwf5
  • 1990's - Performance TechnologyConstructivism/Internet

    1990's - Performance TechnologyConstructivism/Internet
    More emphasis began to be placed on the analysis of the causes of performace problems. Constructivism: collaboration in solving complex, real life problems emphasising personalization of learning. Distance Education developed as a result of the proliferation of the Internet.
    Image: http://tinyurl.com/43gs8r8
  • Knowledge Management

    Knowledge Management
    Improving organizations through the management of knowledge. Image: http://tinyurl.com/3hzg323