# HIstory of Computing

Timeline created by Jonah Mong
• -500 BCE

# The Abacus

https://tinyurl.com/yxbj7teo
The Abacus is an ancient calculating device that could be derived from ancient Mesopotamia. It contains a wooden frame with rods and beams. Each rod represents a digit place: ones, tens, etc. A bead on the rod would represent a 1 or 5 usually on the rods. This allows for addition and subtraction to be preformed better.
• # Napier's Bones

https://tinyurl.com/y233byxk
Napier's bones are used to preform multiplication from a range of numbers 1-9. It's determined by the "bones" to the multiplier on the left and then multiplicand on the right. The product of the equation can be found where the x and the y meet on the "graph"
• # Slide Rule

https://tinyurl.com/y3lswm8m
The Slide Rule is a calculating tool. WIlliam Oughtred made the first slide rule. The slide rule would be used as a handheld calculator until 1974. The slide rule can do anything from multiplication and division to roots and bowers, trigonometry, etc.
• # Pascaline

https://tinyurl.com/y4687by3 The Pascaline was invented by Blaise Pascal who was a mathematician and philosopher. Numbers were entered by manipulating the dials. He invented it for his father who was a tax collector. It could only perform addition and subtraction.
• # Stepped Reckoner

Stepped Reckoner means "stepped drum" in German. It was usually made of brass and steel and was about 27 inches long. It is a calculating device invented by Gottfried Leibnitz in Germany. https://youtu.be/wi9A8_DROWg
• # Jacquard Loom

https://tinyurl.com/y2sndqgsThe Jacquard Loom was invented by the French weaver, Joseph Marie Jacquard. He is referred to as the father of modern computers. The Jacquard Loom is also referred to as the Jacquard Mechanism. The machine was controlled by a chain of cards and a number of punched cards laced together in a continuous sequence. https://youtu.be/MQzpLLhN0fY
• # Arithometer

https://tinyurl.com/y4t4fvrq The Arithometer was invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar. It was the first successful calculating machine that was able to do all four operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
It was manufactured from 1851-1915. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppXnnWAssoI
• # The Difference and Analytical Engine

https://tinyurl.com/y67c3mkv These were invented by Charles Babbage and his assistant Ada Lovelace. The Difference Engine could only do one addition but the Analytical engine could do four basic math operations: addition, division, multiplication and division. https://tinyurl.com/y4m9zv2z
• # Scheutzian Calculation Engine

https://tinyurl.com/yyamwco3
The Scheutzian Calculation Engine was invented by Per Georg Scheutz who was a Swedish Lawyer translator, and inventor. The Scheutzian Calculation Engine was about the size of a piano and was used for creating logarithmic tables.

https://tinyurl.com/yxnuxa27
Augusta Ada Byron was born the daughter of a romantic poet who pursued the field of mathematics. She became Countess of Lovelace after marring William King. She had very informative notes on the Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Which is a calculating device that is very similar to modern day computers.
• # The Transistor

https://tinyurl.com/d4bu3f3
The transistor was made by William Bradford Shockley. The transistor is an many equipment ranging from televisions, to phones and computers. The transistor works because of semiconducting materials. This is when a current flows from the collector to the emitter
• # Tabulating Machine

https://tinyurl.com/y3k4tg3t
Hollerith invented the Tabulating machine after the 1890 census. The tabulating machine would read a card one at a time, then it would record the information that was on the card. The tabulating machine could do complex calculations and determine what course of action to do based on the information gathered.
• # Havard Mark 1

https://tinyurl.com/y5o9a5ul
The Havard Mark 1 was built during World War II, and was built to make calculations easier. The machine was very large in size almost 15 meters long. It was the first developed actual electronic computer

https://tinyurl.com/ovh4phk
The Z1 was designed by Konrad Zuse. It is a motor driven computer it is a non-binary mechanical calculator. It was very reliable and often gave incorrect answers. However, more importantly it contained almost all parts in a modern computer
• # ENIAC (Eckert & Mauchly)

https://tinyurl.com/y842zk3c
The ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer,. It was the first programmable electronic/digital computer. It built during WWII and was used to calculate artilleries ranges
• # EDVAC

https://tinyurl.com/y2ys3ld4
EDVAC was a binary computer rather than a decimal and its purpose was to be stored-program computer. It primarily used inside government and had a budget of 100,000 to be built.
• # UNIVAC 1(Eckert & Mauchly)

https://tinyurl.com/yavg9geb
The UNIVAC 1 was the first commercially produced electronic/digital computer sold to the public. The UNIVAC 1 used 5,000 vacuum tubes, and could preform 1,000 calculations in a second
• # FORTRAN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortran
FORTRAN is one of the oldest programming languages developed. It was made by programmers at IBM. FORTRAN is a acronym for Formula and translation. The purpose of it was to change math into code easier
• # COBOL

https://tinyurl.com/dycdc77
COBOL is another programming language that's primarily used in business. COBOL was created to help the US Department of Defense to create a easy programming language to process data.
• # Computer Chip

https://tinyurl.com/ycd7xpyt
The computer chip/integrated circuit is made up of processing and memory units. This is the makeup of a modern day digital computer. The chip is made up of a semiconductor material and is used for things like RAM cards, and CPUs
• # Computer mouse

https://tinyurl.com/y7u966qr
The earliest version of the mouse was the trackball that was invented in WWII around 1946 and the most similar to the ones we have currently were made in 1963 by Douglas Engelbart. He made it because it would function very smoothly in conjunction with the a keyboard
• # TRS-8o

https://tinyurl.com/8mq9nyw
The TRS-8o is a micro computer system that was developed and launched in 1977. It was made by the Tandy Corporation's RadioShack which was a very successful American electronic store chain.
• # Apple II

https://tinyurl.com/6saw7hs
Apple II was an 8-bit home computer. It was widely sold and very popular. It was designed by Steve Wozniak. It was apples first launch of a personal computer.
• # IBM Acorn

https://tinyurl.com/y3qg4xym
The IBM Acorn computer ran on a 4.77 MHz Intel 8o88 microprocess orand had 16 kilobytes of memory. The computer was 1,565 and was very expensive. The computer had very poor system for how expensive it is. The computer ended up being very popular and was named "man of the year"
• # Microsoft Windows

https://tinyurl.com/68vghkt
Windows was created in 1981 with a program called Interface Manger. The release of Windows 1.0 was known as MS-DOS executive. I contained a calculator, calendar, card file, clipboard viewer, clock, control panel, notepad, paint, reversi, terminal, write. Windows would continued to be updated throughout the years
• # Ethernet

https://tinyurl.com/ctn3mu9
The Ethernet was invented in 1973. Ethernet is a group of computer networking technologies. Ethernet has replaced wired LAN technologies like Token Ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. The Ethernet has been further developed to help increase bit rates and a greater number of nodes
• # Mac OS

https://tinyurl.com/yxjosy6b
MacOS was made by a company named NeXT which was actually founded by Steve Jobs. Mac OS was an Apple Operating system that was designed for the Macintosh Computers.
• # Floppy Disk

https://tinyurl.com/7nlhv5o
The floppy disk is a storage device that was invented in 2006. Floppy disked usually weren't used as internal storage, but similar to how USBs are used today. Floppy disks were very common, however were surpassed be more modern storage devices.
• # iPhone

https://tinyurl.com/dyr7pxn
The iPhone was a touchscreen smartphone that was designed by Apple Inc. It was announce by Steve Jobs in 2007. This type of phone was the first of its kind, its predecessor being a flip phone. The iPhone would operate similarly to a computer and have similar parts, and the phone would popularize the design.
• # Molecular Informatics (DARPA)

https://tinyurl.com/yypgrndv
Molecular Informatics was a program designed by Dr. Alex M. that was a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It encompasses studies like cheminformatics, quantitative structure. They research what possible chemical formulas could be helpful to the next generation computers, I think.
• # Chromebook

https://tinyurl.com/874qlw8
The Chromebook was another laptop that was running the Chrome OS operating system. The Chromebook was first open for sale in 2011. They were being sold by companies like Acer Inc. and Samsung. They were designed and made by the company google however.