History of Compulsory Schooling and Music Education

Timeline created by j.l.greene20
In Music
  • Colony at Massachusetts Bay established

    Settled by English Calvinists, became Boston
  • The Bay Psalm Book published

    Used in Calvinist churches, first book published in British North America, contained no musical notation until 9th edition (1698)
  • Colony at Massachusetts Bay enacted first education law

    Compelled education for all children, placed the burden on parents
  • Massachusetts Bay ammendment

    Required education and schooling and affirmed the right of the state to determine content and scope
  • Indian Wars begin

    Destabilized colonies and weakened compulsory school laws
  • First singing school established (Boston)

    Created to address poor quality of congregational singing
  • The New England Psalm Singer published

    The New England Psalm Singer published
    Composed by William Billings (1746-1800) most famous composer and singing school master. Included "Chester"
  • First Music Instruction book for PS use published

    Co-authored by Lowell Mason and set off a string of other series
  • Lowell Mason and the Boston School Committee

    Lowell Mason and the Boston School Committee
    Began teaching music formally in an upper elementary school 1837-38. Boston School committee approves the inclusion of music in the curriculum. The beginning of permanent public school music instruction.
  • Compulsory Schooling Statutes begin

    Massachusetts led the way, with most states following, however, mostly ineffective and not enforced
  • First Normal School for Music Educators

    First Normal School for Music Educators
    Founded by Julia Crane in Potsdam, NY
  • Founding of the Music Supervisors' National Conference

    The precursor to MENC(1934)/NAfME(1998)
  • Invention of the Phonograph

    Introduced music listening in addition to singing in schools
  • John Dewey's Democracy and Education published

    Belief that universal schooling was critical to democracy, helped lead to increased enforcement of compulsory school laws
  • The Child's Bill of Rights in Music

    Music philosophy created by the MENC and pushed to its membership.
  • American School Band Directors Association formed

    School band movement becomes organized.
  • US Supreme Court outlaws racially segregated schools

  • Launching of Sputnik

    Also launched a race to improve science and math education to the detriment of music and the arts
  • Contemporary Music Project

    Sought to put quality composers in the classroom to make contemporary music more relevant to children.
  • American Choral Directors Association formed

    Choral movement becomes organized.
  • First federal initiatives in the arts

    Under the Kennedy administration, included arts education
  • Yale Seminar

    Federally supported development of arts education focusing on quality music classroom literature.
  • National Endowment for the Arts

    Federal financial support and recognition of the value music has in society.
  • Tanglewood Symposium

    Establishment of a unified and ecletic philosophy of music education. Specific emphasis on youth music, special education music, urban music, and electronic music.
  • GO Project

    35 Objectives listed by MENC for quality music education programs in public schools. Published and recommended for music educators to follow.
  • Ann Arbor Symposium

    Emphasized the impact of learning theory in music education in the areas of: auditory perception, motor learning, child development, cognitive skills, memory processing, affect, and motivation.
  • Becoming Human Through Music Symposium

    "The Wesleyan Symposium on the Perspectives of Social Anthropology in the Teaching and Learning of Music" (Middletown, Connecticut, August 6-10, 1984). Emphasized the importance of cultural context in music education and the cultural implications of rapidly changing demographics in the United States.
  • Multicultural Symposium in Music Education

    Growing out of the awareness of the increasing diversity of the American School population, the three-day Symposium for music teachers was co-sponsored by MENC, the Society for Ethnomusicology, and the Smithsonian Institution, in order to provide models, materials, and methods for teaching music of the world's cultures to school children and youth.
  • National Standards for Music Education

    For much of the 1980s, there was a call for educational reform and accountability in all curricular subjects. This led to the National Standards for Music Education introduced by MENC. The MENC standards were adopted by some states, while other states have produced their own standards or largely eschewed the standards movement.
  • The Housewright Symposium/Vision 2020

    Examined changing philosophies and practices and predicted how American music education will (or should) look in the year 2020.
  • No Child Left Behind

    Federal education policy that led to the standardized testing movement.
  • Tanglewood II: Charting the Future

    Reflected on the 40 years of change in music education since the first Tanglewood Symposium of 1967, developing a declaration regarding priorities for the next forty years.
  • Common Core Standards

    Further emphasized STEM and standardized testing.
  • National Core Arts Standards

    Created in response to the Common Core
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Tried to be more flexible in types of testing and gave more control to the states.
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    Revolutionary War

    British colonies shifted over the course of the was before they became states. Jurisdiction over education was granted to the states, not the federal government.
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    Common School Era

    Conflict between public schools for the poor versus private schools (mostly religious). Dual system persisted in the southern states.
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    American Civil War

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    World War I

    Awareness of illiteracy of soldiers helped to strengthen compulsory schooling.
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    World War II

    Returning soldiers being educated by GI bill and flooded into the band field.