History 207 Midterm 2

  • Period: Nov 7, 1542 to

    Spanish California

  • First Spanish Colonization, mission in San Diego

    Founded by Father Junipero Serra
  • Period: to

    21 Spanish missions founded

    -founded by franciscians
    -Used as forts against English
    -Used also to 'convert' Indians and teach them Spanish Culture
  • Shakers founded by "mother" Ann Lee

    -19th century commune
    -Religious group
    -name derived from religious dance
    -many communities by mid 1800s
    -prohibited marriage, men and women slept in separate buildings
    "eldresses" - women leaders
  • Period: to

    Grimke Sisters

    Abolitionists who desired everything from freedom of slaves to women suffrage
  • Period: to

    Horace Mann

    -Greatest educational reformer of the 19th century
    -first Secretary for the department of Education in Massachusettes
    -Advocated
    -raising tax dollars for education
    -training for teachers
    -Kids of similar age in same class
    -less use of physical punishment
  • Expatriation

    American Colonization Society
    -wealthy virginians proposed gradual emancipation with compensation for masters and freed slaves -free slaves taken back to africa -overall unsuccesful due to number of slaves and opposition of blacks and whites
  • High Schools form for upper class males in Massachusettes

    Vocational schools for upper class males
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Independence Missouri to Sante Fe
  • Period: to

    Mexican California

    Mexican revolution ended Spanish control
    -missions becam eparished churches, sold to rancheros or abandoned Americans Allowed to Settle in California if:
    -became american citizens
    -acept Roman Catholic faith
    -purchase land grant
  • American Colonization in Mexico

    -Stephen Austin moves into Mexico with 150 Americans
    -Mexicans have growing concern of American immigration
  • New Harmony, Indianna founded by Robert Owen

    -19th Century commune
    -Anti-industrial, wanted to return to an agrarian society
    -failed
  • Expatriation

    Monrovia, Liberia founded for slaves
  • William Lloyd Garrison

    Abolitionist and publisher for The Liberator -demanded immediate emancipation
    -demanded full civil rights for slaves -Founded American slavery society
  • Co-education begins at Oberlin College, Ohio

    Blacks were admitted to princeton and Dartmouth pre-civil war
  • Goliad Massacre

    Santa Anna Kills 350 surrendered Texans
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Sam Houston's army defeats Santa Anna
    Santa Anna forced to sign treaty grantig Texas independence
  • Frederick Douglas

    Born into slavery in Maryland
    escaped in 1838
    traveled to England to speak against American slavery
    -wrote "narrative of the live of Frederick Douglas" - 1845
    -Moved to Rochester N.Y. and began publishing anti-slavery newspaper
  • Roman Catholic schools begin in New York City

    Angry at protestant bias in public schools First Irish immigration built school systems
    Then Italian and Polish immigration grew even more
  • Mount Holyoke - first all women's college

  • Oregon Trail

    Independence Missuouri to Oregon
  • Mormon Trail

    Navou Illinois to Salt Lake City Utah
  • California Trail

    Along Oregon trail but depart South towards Sutter's fort
    -6 months in a covered wagon
    -donner party disaster
  • Manifest Destiny

    Belief that God wanted American people to spread their cultur and population to Pacific Coast
  • Brookfarm, Massachussettes

    -19th century commune
    -Transcendental experiment
    -failed by 1847
    -nathaniel Hawthornes dissulusionement evident in "A Blithedale Romance"
  • Election of 1844 and Oregon conflict

    Conflict of Americans moving into British Oregon in 1840s James k Polk - Democratic candidate from tennessee
    "Young Hickory" - "54'40' or fight!" vs Henry Clay - whigh Polk wins and reaches compromise - boundary set at 49th Parallel
  • San Miguel was last Spanish Mission to be secularized

  • Texas become slave state

  • Bear Flag revolt

    Sonoma June 14, 1846
  • Montery captured

    Captured by Sloat
  • Period: to

    Mexican War

    -Causes:
    -Conflict with Americans moving into Mexican territory
    -Anger of losing Texas
    -Boundary disputes between Neuces and Rio de Janeiro
    California issue:
    -English interest in CA
    -Polk Larkin Plan - encouraged Californians to separate from mexico on their own
    -Fremont comes to CA in 1846 Start of war:
    -After Mexico refuses to see U.S. diplomat, Pole send General Taylor to defend border at Rio Grande. Skirmish develops, U.S. declares war
  • Period: to

    Attitude towards Mexican War

    Supported by West, South, and Urban North
    Opposed by most whigs (lincoln), abolitionists (William Lloyd Garrison), Henry David Thoreau
  • San Pasqual

    Mexican Victory
  • San Gabriel

    Last battle in CA near LA
  • Battle of Buena Vista

    Zachary Taylor wins
  • Capture of Mexico City

    Winfield Scott captures Mexico city
  • Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo

    -America paid Mexico for debts incurred by Americans
    -Mexicans living in America had their rights and property protected
    -Mexico ceded its northern territories
    -boundary set at Rio Grande -U.s. increased its land by 1/3
    -North and South feud intensifies
  • Seneca Falls Conference

    "Declaration of sentiments and resolutions" written by E.C. Stanton
    -desired women voting
    most women leaders were quakers
  • California Gold Rush

    California desired statehood:
    President Polk announced all gold that was found to be tax free
    Many lower class men moved to Cali to search for gold
  • Compromise of 1850

    Henry Clays proposal -admit CA as a free state
    -Stope slave trade in DC
    -Create Utah and New Mexico territories with Pop. soverinty
    create stiff fugitive slave law
    - Harriet Beecher Stowe's "uncle tom's cabin"
  • Kansas - Nebraska Act of 1854

    Stephen Douglas - Illinois democrat from Tennesse
    proposed railroad line to the west and have Chicago as hub South wanted the railroad through the south Douglas proposes to create Kansas and Nebraska territories which would nullify the Missouri Compromise Franklin Pierce (president) signs act
  • Republican Party

    Formed in opposition to extension of slavery through Kansas-Nebraska act most were former whigs including lincoln opposed popular soverignty, thought slavery should be a fed. issue included free soil party and "know nothings" (American Party)
    -opposed Roman Catholicism and immigration
    -opposed Irish and Chinese
    -wanted west to be settled by whites only
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Kansas erupts into civil war: abolitionists vs. pro-slavery advocates John Brown kills 5 pro-slavery men at Pottowottamie
  • 300 Vocational schools for males, mostly in the New England Area

  • Election of 1860

    2 issues: states rights but more importantly slavery Republicans nominate Lincoln: want fed gov't to prevent slavery in west
    Northern democrats nominate Douglas: support popular soverignty
    southern democrats nominate breckenridge: fed gov't should protect slavery in west
    whigs (constitutional party) nominate John Bell Lincoln loses (less than 40%) of popular vote
    but wins electoral vote South Carolina secedes
  • Wyoming first territory to have limited voting rights

    Attempt to increase population and apply for statehood
  • Utah second territory to have limited voting rights

    Attempt to increase population and apply for statehood