Historical Evolution of the Field

Timeline created by ldenny
  • First School Museum

    First school museum opened in St. Louis, then Reading, PA & Cleveland, OH
  • First catalog of instructional films

    The first catalog of instructional films was published. The public school system of Rochester, NY became the first to adopt films for regular instructional use later that same year
  • Thomas Edison stated

    Thomas Edison stated “Books will soon be obsolete in the schools...It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with the motion picture. Our school system will be completely changed in the next ten years” (cited in Saettler, 1968, p. 98)
  • Visual Instruction Movement Growth

    Starting in 1914 through the next 9 years the visual instruction movement grew there were:
    -five national professional organizations for visual instruction were established
    -five journals focusing on visual instruction were published
    -courses in visual instruction began being offered in teacher-training institutions
    -large-city school systems began developing bureaus of visual education
  • Department of Visual Instruction

    The Department of Visual Instruction was established as part of the National Education Association.
  • Great Depression

    Commercial interests in the visual instruction movement began to decline and had lost more than $50 million. Only part of this was due to the Great Depression.
  • Merging of National Professional Organizations

    The merging of three existing national professional organizations for visual instruction. Leadership in the movement was consolidated into one organization, the Department of Visual Instruction. This organization was part of the National Education Association, now known as the Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
  • Visualizing the Curriculum

    "Visualizing the Curriculum" was publish in 1937 by Charles F. Hoban, Sr., Charles F. Hoban Jr., and Stanley B. Zissman. This textbook was one of the most important written and discussed the value of audiovisual material and realism.
  • World War II

    During World War II, the audiovisual instructional movement in the schools slowed down. However, some of the audiovisual devices were used during the war for military services, such as training films and filmstrips.
  • Division of Visual Aids for War Training

    The Division of Visual Aids for War Training was established.
  • Cone of Experience

    Edgar Dale further discussed the hierarchy of media through developing the "Cone of Experience".
  • Television

    During the 1950s, the interest in instructional television grew. This was a huge factor in the audiovisual movement growth.
  • Educational Television Stations

    The Federal Communications Commission decided to set 242 television channels aside for education instruction. The Ford Foundation helped in the growth of instructional television by spending millions of dollars to fund educational television. These were major factors that led to the significant growth of the audiovisual movement.
  • "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching"

    B. F. Skinner published an article, "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching", discussing human learning and the characteristics of useful instructional materials.
  • Sputnik Launch

    The Soviet Union launched "Sputnik", the first orbiting space satellite, beginning a series of events that would have a major impact on the instructional design process.
  • Criterion Referenced Testing Movement

    This movement was an important component in the instructional design process development. This testing is designed to measure individuals on behaviors regardless of other individuals results.
  • "Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction"

    Robert Mager published a book on how to write objectives for educators. This book explains the desired learning behavior, the conditions for when to perform certain behaviors, and how to judge behaviors.
  • Slowing of Instructional Television

    Instructional television had short lived projects which led to the slowing of instructional television. The Ford Foundation chose to support public television all together rather than on specific areas.
  • "The Conditions of Learning"

    This book discussed different learning outcomes that require different learning conditions. The publication of this book was a significant piece in the instructional design history.
  • Increased Growth of Instructional Design Models

    The number of instructional design models rose significantly during the 1970s. Instructional design graduate programs were created. Also, many nations began to see the benefits of instructional design and started supporting the use of it.
  • U.S. Military Adoption of Instructional Design Methods

    Several branches of the U.S. military adopted an instructional design method to help guide the development of training materials.

    Process model developed for and adopted by the military. ADDIE stands for analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
  • Computers

    In the 1980s, computers popularity grew. Schools began using them for instructional purposes.
  • Growing Interest in Cognitive Psychology

    An increase of interest in the principles of cognitive psychology that could be applied in the instructional design process.
  • Computers Used for Instructional Purposes

    Computers were being used for instructional purposes in more than 40% of all elementary schools and more than 75% of all secondary schools in the U.S.
  • Human Performance Improvement Movement

    This movement has had a huge impact on the instruction design field. It focuses on job performance, business results, and non-instructional solutions to performance problems.
  • SAM

    Successive approximation model (SAM) focuses more on the construction of learning experiences emphasizing on learner emotions, energy, activity, needs, and accomplishments.
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    Audiovisual Movement

    There were various technological advances in instructional media which led to an increased interest during the 1920s and 1930s. Such as radio broadcasting, sound recordings, and sound motion pictures.
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    Programmed Instruction Movement

    Major factor in the development of the systems approach.