Hist206 Midterm

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    Muhammad Ali

    Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) Khedive of Egypt—the Sultan’s governor of Europe. The sultan asked Muhammad Ali to raise an army to put down the Greek revolution. Ali tapped his son to lead the army, hoping that he could suppress the Rebellion, which would then lead to Ali gaining control over Egypt, Greece, and part of the Balkans. The brutality of Ali’s son off put the French and British, who supported the Greek cause and disliked the idea of the Ottoman’s dominating the cradle of civilization.
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    Alexander Ypsilanti

    Greek nationalist and revolutionary who launched the revolt against the Ottoman Empire
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    Reign of Tsar Alexander

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    Giuseppe Garibaldi

    Born in Neice, an ardent Italian nationalist, having fought against the Austrians and the French. After the failure of the 1848 revolutions, he was exiled; however, he returned to fight for the Piedmontese. Covore feared Garibaldi after the Piedmontese relinquished Neice, Garibaldi’s homeland.
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    Reign of Prince Klemens von Metternich (Foreign Minister/Chancellor) (Austria)

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    Viscount Castlereagh (Foreign Secretary) (England)

  • Battle of Leipzip

    Turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon forced to retreat back to France, causing the French Empire to fall apart.
  • Treaty of Chaumont

    Allies agree to defeat Napoleon. Allies agree to maintain the alliance even after the defeat of the French.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Napoleon Abdicates
  • First Peace of Paris

    The Allies agree to restore the monarchy in France, placing Louie XVIII of the Bourbon lineage as king. Instead of restroring the monarchy to an absolute monarchy, the Allies agree to establish a constitutional monarchy with checks and balances.
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    Congress System

    • International system established defined in the negative through explaining what the great powers opposed. Specifically, the Congress of Vienna expressed opposition against revolutions and hegemony, desiring to establish an international order in which the conservative, great powers could maintain their influence.
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    Otto von Bismark

    Following University, Bismark joined the Prussian foreign service. In 1841, Bismark named Prussian delegate to the German assembly, gained a reputation as a conservative and nationalist who detested Austrian privilege. In the late 1850s, he served as an ambassador to Paris and St. Petersburg, learning about the personalities of the Tsar and Napoleon. In 1862, Bismark named Prussian chancellor. Bismark ignored the conflict in the Lantag over the army reforms and implemented the reforms.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Establishes the Great Powers wiithin the European System, with France being given a spot at the negociating table. Sets precedent for the Congress system to follow as the great powers determine the European Politics.
  • Holy Alliance Formed

    Signed by the three conservative monarchs (Russia, Austria, Prussia). The Alliance committed the signatories to protect the conservative status quo. Open to all to join, most important non-participant was Great Britain
  • Quadruple Alliance Formed

    Quadruple Alliance was restricted to the four Great Powers, France was excluded from the alliance. The Quadruple alliance is innovative in that it has a provision, which calls for the members to regularly come together to discuss their interests and how peace could be maintained within Europe. This is a dramatic shift in international politics. In the 18th century, there was no structure to deal with challenges to peace.
  • Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

    The Great Powers agree to end the occupation of France and, as France had paid off their indemnities, France is invited to participate in discussions, essentially incorporating France into the Great Power structure for the foreseeable future.
  • Congress of Troppau

    Discuss revolutions in Italy and Spain. Metternich feared the revolutions occurring within Italy as they threatened Austria. He therefore advocates crushing Italian revolutions, a principle which the Russians and Prussians agree with. British public disapproved intervention in the revolutions in Italy and Spain as they saw the Italian and Spaniard’s desire of constitutional monarchy as reasonable. Although the end decision by the Congress is to allow Austrian intervention in Italy.
  • Congress of Laibach

    Grants Austrian support for intervention in Italy. The British and French reluctantly agree to support the Austrian plan.
  • Congress of Verona

    The Great Powers begin to discuss what exactly should be done with the Greek revolution. The question regarding Greece is that Greece lies outside of the domain of the Great Powers and therefore it seems as if they might be overextending through intervening in the Greek revolution. The other great powers were able to restrain Russia’s ambition and prevent them from intervening. The Russians only agreed to stay out of Greece on the condition that the French would not intervene in Spain.
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    Concert System

    Less institutionalized means of conducting diplomacy within Europe. Great Powers vie for influence, backroom negociations and manipulative polics define international system
  • French Violate Congress of Verona

    The new French foreign minister (Chateaubriand) decided to act on the opinion of the people and in the best interests of French. Chateaubriand broke the agreement made at Verona and the French intervened in Spain. The breakdown of this agreement leads to a systemic breakdown of the Congress system as nations grow more and more anxious over the power of one another and decide that collective action cannot be achieved.
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    Reign of Czar Nicholas I

  • Battle of Navarino Bay

  • Peace of Adrianople

    • Russians sue for peace• Cash indemnities for the Russians • Russians allowed occupying the Danubia (modern Romania and Moldova). Although not directly falling under Russian sovereignty, Russian military remained in the territory, expanding Russian influence.
  • London Protocol

    • The Great Powers recognize Greece as an independent country. The British, French, Russians, and Ottomans all sign onto the deal. • German Prince appointed king of Greece in a similar manner to Belgium.• The problem that existed now as a problem of precedence. The Greek case seemed to set a rule that the map could be redrawn by force. It seemed to imply that intervention could occur to overthrow Ottoman influence.
  • London Conference

    • King Leopold I (1790-1865) (r. 1831-1865) minor German prince given the throne in independent Belgium. Leopold would support the conservative status quo, thus, revolutionary sentiment would not spread. As no great power unilaterally gained from the independence of Belgium, the institution of Leopold at the London Conference solved the immediate threat of nationalism without further destabilizing Europe.
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    Political Influence of Lord Palmerston

    Opinion: Britain not guided by partners, allies, great power, but instead strictly by national interest
  • July Revolution in France

    In 1830, Charles X dissolves French Assembly, resulting in rioting and calls for revolution in Paris. The July Revolution of 1830 pits revolutionaries against the Charles X, resulting in Charles X fleeing Paris and abdicating power. Having ousted Charles X, King Louis-Philippe (1773-1850) (r. 1830-1848) assumed the French throne. He represented more liberal, nationalistic ideas, served the interests of the middle class. The French inspires revolutions in the Netherlands, Poland, German states.
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    Reign of King Louis-Philippe

  • Belgian Revolution

    Direct challenge to the provisions established by the Congress of Vienna.
  • Polish Uprising

  • Battle of Konya

    Battle of Konya (1832): Ali defeats the Sultan’s troops. This is deeply disheartening to the Sultan as he has now been defeated by the British, French, Russians, and, now, his own men. When the Tsar hears of the Sultan’s loss, he decided to intervene on the side of the Sultan, realizing that the collapse of the Ottoman Empire would be detrimental.
  • Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi

    • The Sultan recognizes the Tsar as the protector of Christians within the Ottoman Empire. • Russia promises to protect the Sultan, the Sultan promises too keep foreign navies out of the Dardanelle and Bosporus. • British and French worried over this treaty as they thought it was the first step to Russian dominations.• Austrians disliked this as well, but decided the best plan was to ally with the Russians as opposed to fighting against them
  • Zollverein Created

    Beginning in 1818, the Prussians began talking with the other states and urging the other states to lower their trade barriers to encourage trade between the various states. This customs union is called the Zollverein (1834). Markets begin to expand, growing economies. Further, through the economies of these states becoming more integrating, political unity becomes more of a reality.
  • Treaty of London

    Ratified Belgian Independence and Bound Belgium to be Neutrality.
  • Battle of Nezib

    Sultan’s troops defeated, the Sultan dies, the Sultan’s navy begins to mutiny
  • London Conference

    Behind the backs of the French, the British, Russians, and Austrians come to the flowing agreement and present it to the French diplomats: allow Muhammad Ali to keep his gains, but not allowed to continue expansion; the French are not allowed to continue threatening to intervene on the side. The French are stunned, viewing this as a violation of Great Powers diplomacy. Realizing that war between the great powers would not be good, Louie Philippe agrees.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    -French Revolution-Louie Phillipe abdicates, Second French Republic Established
    -Austrian Revolution- Hungarian Patrior (Lajos Kossuth) and students protest government, Metternich Fired, emperor flees. War occurs (General Joseph Radetzy), Austrian conservative powers regain control, initial emperor abdicates in favor of his nephew.
    -Italian Revolution: Charles Albert (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) declares war on behalf of Italian revolutionaries. Mazzini conquers Rome, Napoleon intervenes.
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    Reign of Victor Emmanuel

    Piedmont-Sardinia Monarch and Italian Nationalist. Emmanuel had been ignored at the Congress of Paris. Even before the Congress of Paris, the spirit of Italian nationalism had been rising. Risorgimento: The resurgence of Italian nationalism
  • Erfurt Union/Olmutz Agreement

    • Erfurt Union 1850: A first step towards German unification, a political unification of Prussia with other German states (excluding Austria). Fredrick Wilhelm backed down from the Erfurt Union, fearing antagonism from Austria and Russia. The new agreement—Olmütz Agreement (1850)—reaffirmed the power of the German assembly.
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    Reign of Emperor Napoleon III

    Napoleon organizes a coup in 1852, overthrows Republic
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    Count Cavour

    Prime Minister of Piedmont Sardinia.
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    Crimean War

  • Paris Peace Conference

    The most important provision from the Congress of Paris was that the Black Sea completely neutralized. This was a direct blow to Russian strength, as they could no longer put pressure on the Ottoman Empire as they lacked the usage of the Black Sea to expand naval operations. The other main provision was that Moldova and other states that had been fought the Russians and Ottomans had fought over are now allowed self-government, creating a buffer between the Ottomans and Russians. Italy=problem
  • Plombières Agreement

    Cavour and Napoleon agree to go to war with the Austrians. The plan is for Piedmont-Sardinia to pick a fight with Austria in such a way that Austria would seem like the aggressor. This would allow the French to intervene on behalf of the Piedmontese. Further, through making it seem like Austria was the aggressor, Prussia was not bound to aid Austria.
  • Armistice of Villafracne

    o Napoleon and the Austrian Empire agree to an armistice. Under the conditions of the armistice, Lombardy given to France by the Austrians, then the French promised to give the territory to Piedmont-Sardinia (the reason for this was that Austria didn’t want to reward to nationalist rebellion). Austria keeps Venetia. Tuscany, Parma, Romanga, and Moderna were to remain independent.
  • Treaty of Zurich

    Peace between Austrian and Piedmont. Piedmont violaces this. o Having been left independent, Tuscany, Parma, Romanga, and Moderna existed within a power vacuum. Cavour seized the opportunity and captured the territories, unifying them under a puppet stat that they proceeded to annex. Having received the territories, Piedmont-Sardinia give Fracne Savoy and Nice.
  • Expendition of the Thousand

    Garibaldi sets out on a madcap gamble, landing in Sicily with the intention of conquering the kingdom of Two Sicilies. With a force of 1000 and little battle experience, Garibaldi’s army had liberated the island of Sicily. The people were willing to join Garibaldi as the bourbon king was unpopular.
  • Meeting at Eano

    Garibaldi meets Victor Emmanuel, decides to put the principles of Italian unification over his republican values, allows for Victor Emmanuel to become the king of Italy.
  • Kingdom of Italy Established

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    Reign of William I

    Successor of Fredrick Wilhem. Admired Italian unification and more progressive ideas. Appreciated the strengthen afforded by unification. The mobilization of the Prussia army against the French, although successful in intimidating the French, forced William to realize the weakness and incompetence of the Prussian army.
  • Invasion of holstein

    Invasion of Holstein, evict the Austrians. Austrians declared this an act of aggression, leading many German states to join Austria’s side. Prussian army invaded Austrian empire itself. Prussians quickly defeat the Austrians. o Bismarck refuses to have a victory parade, refuses to take territory from the Austrians, refuses to do anything that would humiliate the Austrians. Bismarck’s goal was not to humiliate the Austrians—necesity for future integration into a unified Germany.
  • Peace of Prague

    • Austrians give up Venetia to the French who, in turn, passed it on to Italy. Bismarck used the victory to weaken Austria, but not to strengthen Prussia. • Bismarck agrees to dissolve the German federation. North German Confederation created, many members from the German federation, except Austria. Bismarck attempting to marginalize Austria, assert Prussian domination in Germany, and lay the groundwork for German unification.
  • Austrian Empire Converts into Austro-Hungarian Empire

  • Franco-Prussian War

    Manufactured crisis over Spanish succession leads to war between French and Prussians.
  • Ems Dispatch

  • Treaty of Frankfurt

    o Alsace and Loraine taken from France, given to the Prussiano French forced to pay an enormous indemnity. Prussian army would occupy northern France until the debt paid off. • Italians use this as an opportunity to seize the Papal States (French troops had been recalled when the war with Prussia began).